On the warming in the tropical upper troposphere: Models versus observations
Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 38, Issue 15, August 2011
How to Cite
2011), On the warming in the tropical upper troposphere: Models versus observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15704, doi:10.1029/2011GL048101., , and (
- Issue published online: 4 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 JUN 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 23 JUN 2011
- Manuscript Received: 10 MAY 2011
- global climate models;
- static stability;
- tropical upper troposphere;
 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 (Fourth Assessment Report) GCMs (General Circulation Models) predict a tropical tropospheric warming that increases with height, reaches its maximum at ∼200 hPa, and decreases to zero near the tropical tropopause. This study examines the GCM-predicted maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere using satellite MSU (microwave sounding unit)-derived deep-layer temperatures in the tropical upper- and lower-middle troposphere for 1979–2010. While satellite MSU/AMSU observations generally support GCM results with tropical deep-layer tropospheric warming faster than surface, it is evident that the AR4 GCMs exaggerate the increase in static stability between tropical middle and upper troposphere during the last three decades.