Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 38, Issue 19, October 2011
How to Cite
2011), Imaging thunder, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L19807, doi:10.1029/2011GL049162., , , , , and (
- Issue published online: 15 OCT 2011
- Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 8 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 2 AUG 2011
- infrasound array;
- lightning mapping;
- slowness method;
- thunder imaging
 We use a network of broadband microphones, including a 4-element array, to locate the sources of thunder occurring during an electrical storm in central New Mexico on July 24th, 2009. Combined slowness search and distance ranging are used to identify thunder regions in three dimensions (out to 12 km) and for two overlapping frequency bands (1–10 and 4–40 Hz). Distinct thunder pulses are locatable and used to predict time-of-arrival to neighboring stations and to identify correlated phases across the network. Spatial correlation is also found between the thunder source regions and regions of very high frequency (VHF) radiation as located by the New Mexico Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Some of the misfit between the LMA and thunder locations is attributable to differences in excitation mechanisms of the respective radiation, which is related to current impulses in lightning channels (for thunder) and incremental ionization of the atmosphere (for VHF emissions).