Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks
Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2012
Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 39, Issue 2, January 2012
How to Cite
2012), Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L02708, doi:10.1029/2011GL050168., et al. (
- Issue online: 31 JAN 2012
- Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 29 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Received: 29 NOV 2011
- NSF Office of Polar Programs. Grant Numbers: ARC-0714074, ARC-0454662
- Icelandic Science Foundation. Grant Number: RANNIS 070272013
Auxiliary material for this article contains a detailed description of the climate model used in this article, including both the 1000 AD control run, and the perturbed transient simulation, six figures, and four tables.
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Additional file information is provided in the readme.txt.
|grl28820-sup-0001-readme.txt||plain text document||7K||readme.txt|
|grl28820-sup-0002-txts01.pdf||PDF document||69K||Text S1. Description of the climate model.|
|grl28820-sup-0003-fs01.pdf||PDF document||2636K||Figure S1. Landscape of in situ ice-killed vegetation, site M10-B067v, northern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.|
|grl28820-sup-0004-fs02.pdf||PDF document||2056K||Figure S2. The 14C inventory of a single strand of the living clump of Polytrichum moss shown in the photo collected from central Baffin Island in 2009 AD was measured to have a D14C of 51 ± 2.|
|grl28820-sup-0005-fs03.pdf||PDF document||344K||Figure S3. Probability density functions more accurately describe the variance in the calendar age solution when calibrating conventional 14C ages than do median age and standard deviations.|
|grl28820-sup-0006-fs04.pdf||PDF document||369K||Figure S4. Evolution of albedo for the polar region averaged over Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept in our transient simulation relative to the 1000 AD control, and the spatial albedo anomaly pattern 1300-1600 AD.|
|grl28820-sup-0007-fs05.pdf||PDF document||152K||Figure S5. Spatial pattern of average surface air temperature anomalies averaged for May, Jun, Jul, Aug for 1300-1600 AD relative to the 1000 AD control run.|
|grl28820-sup-0008-fs06.pdf||PDF document||193K||Figure S6. SST and SSS anomalies for 1300-1600 AD relative to the mean of the 1000 AD control run.|
|grl28820-sup-0009-ts01.pdf||PDF document||32K||Table S1. Three different individual strands from a single clump of Polytrichum moss exposed in the year of its collection by a receding ice-cap margin produced statistically identical conventional radiocarbon ages.|
|grl28820-sup-0010-ts02.pdf||PDF document||65K||Table S2. Details of all radiocarbon dated sample sites.|
|grl28820-sup-0011-ts03.xls||Excel spreadsheet||171K||Table S3. Calibration details for radiocarbon dates used in Figure 2c.|
|grl28820-sup-0012-ts04.pdf||PDF document||40K||Table S4. Identification of the sites that provide the majority of the signal to the intervals in the Composite PDF.|
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