The impact of microphysical parameters, ice nucleation mode, and habit growth on the ice/liquid partitioning in mixed-phase Arctic clouds



[1] The fundamental physical processes that maintain supercooled liquid in observed Arctic mixed-phase clouds are poorly constrained. To isolate the factors that control ice/liquid partitioning during the ascent of an air parcel, we apply an adiabatic parcel model that includes ice nucleation by deposition and immersion freezing and ice habit evolution. Simulations are performed for two different temperature regimes that resemble those observed during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (−13°C < T < −9°C) and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (−22°C < T < −17°C). Effects on ice and liquid water evolution in an updraft are explored as a function of ice nucleus (IN) concentration and nucleation mode, updraft velocity, properties of cloud condensation nuclei, and assumption about ice particle shape (habit). For most conditions, ice and liquid coexist and increase simultaneously, and only at high IN concentrations or low updraft velocities do ice particles grow at the expense of droplets. The impact of the ice nucleation mode on ice/liquid distribution depends on the temperature and supersaturation regime. The assumption of spherical ice particles instead of nonspherical habits leads to an underestimate of ice growth. It is concluded that updraft velocity, IN concentrations, and particle shape can impact ice/liquid distribution to similar extents.