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Global variations of HDO and HDO/H2O ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from ACE-FTS satellite measurements

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Abstract

[1] High-quality satellite observations of water and deuterated water in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) are used to map global climatological behavior. Spatial and temporal variability in these data suggest that convection plays a significant role in setting water vapor isotopic composition in these regions. In many instances, enhancements in HDO/H2O (i.e., δD) are closely tied to patterns of climatological deep convection and uncorrelated with water vapor, although convection appears to have different isotopic effects in different locations. The ACE-FTS data reveal seasonal variations in the tropics and allow mapping of climatological regional structure. These data reveal strong regional isotopic enhancement associated with the North American summer monsoon but not the Asian monsoon or the western Pacific warm pool. We suggest that the isotopic effects of deep convection near the tropopause are moderated by the ambient relative humidity, which controls the amount of convective ice that evaporates. Local convective signals can in turn affect global behavior: the North America monsoon influence introduces a Northern Hemisphere–Southern Hemisphere asymmetry in water isotopic composition in the lower stratosphere that extends into the tropics and influences the apparent seasonal cycle in averaged tropical UTLS data. Seasonal variation in tropical lower stratospheric water isotopic composition extends up to ∼20 km in ACE retrievals, but in contrast to previous reports, there is no clear evidence of propagation beyond the lowermost stratosphere. The reliability of these observations is supported by the broad consistency of ACE-FTS averaged tropical profiles with previous remote and in situ δD measurements.

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