The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation
Article first published online: 29 OCT 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (1991–2012)
Volume 116, Issue E10, October 2011
How to Cite
2011), The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, E00G19, doi:10.1029/2011JE003797., et al. (
- Issue published online: 29 OCT 2011
- Article first published online: 29 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 27 JUL 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 JUL 2011
- Manuscript Received: 6 JAN 2011
 The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity validation effort has been pursued with selected data sets including an Earth-view data set. With this effort an initial validation of the on-orbit performance of the imaging spectrometer has been achieved, including validation of the cross-track spectral uniformity and spectral instantaneous field of view uniformity. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is the first imaging spectrometer to measure a data set of this kind at the Moon. These calibrated science measurements are being used to address the full set of science goals and objectives for this mission.