Spatial effects of HF multiple scattering in the ionosphere: Experimental observations
Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 46, Issue 4, August 2011
How to Cite
2011), Spatial effects of HF multiple scattering in the ionosphere: Experimental observations, Radio Sci., 46, RS4009, doi:10.1029/2011RS004645., and (
- Issue published online: 27 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 MAY 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 15 MAY 2011
- Manuscript Received: 3 JAN 2011
 The theory of multiple scattering of MF/HF radio waves by intermediate-scale (0.1–5 km) ionospheric irregularities predicts a very distinctive distribution of the relative integral intensity of a signal reflected from the ionosphere in the vicinity of a ground-based transmitter. It is significantly reduced within a distance of about several tens of kilometers. A ring of enhancement occurs at a greater distance. At still larger distances from the transmitter, effects of multiple scattering are weakened and the integral intensity returns to its undisturbed value. While there are experimental confirmations of the “anomalous attenuation” effect near the transmitter location, no attempt has yet been made to track the intensity features at the larger distances. This paper presents results of the first experimental campaign of this kind that was conducted in September–November 2009 in and around Boulder, CO. The results obtained confirm that significant deviations from the predictions of geometrical optics occur, and these deviations are in general agreement with the theory of multiple scattering in the ionosphere.