An extremely low profile, compact, and broadband tightly coupled patch array



[1] A tightly coupled patch array (TCPA) is introduced to realize small-size, extremely low profile planar antennas with broadband performance. Past approaches have used frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) as part of the substrate or ground plane (i.e., in passive mode) for also realizing low-profile antennas. In contrast, the proposed TCPA employs an FSS aperture as the radiating structure (i.e., array antenna). A key aspect of the TCPA is the exploitation of differences in FSSs when operating in radiating and passive modes. Tight element coupling and periodic excitation are the keys for achieving broadband operation. In this paper, a small-size, finite array is designed along with a very thin and compact feeding network. The designed TCPA resonated at 2.07 GHz with 5.6% impedance bandwidth (∣S11∣ < −10 dB), 4.4 dB realized gain (86% efficiency), and 23% gain bandwidth (3 dB drop). Of importance is that the overall aperture dimensions were only λ0/3 × λ0/3 and λ0/42 thick (including feeding network) at the midfrequency of operation. A preliminary TCPA antenna prototype was fabricated and tested. Both simulated and measured data show enhanced bandwidth as compared to the conventional microstrip patch antennas of the same size and thickness. However, as common for such extremely low profile microstrip antennas, the conductivity losses were augmented. Thus, the measured TCPA efficiency (50%) was smaller than computed.