• radar clutter;
  • refractivity estimation

[1] Non-standard radio wave propagation in the atmosphere is caused by anomalous changes of the atmospheric refractivity index. In recent years, refractivity from clutter (RFC) has been an active field of research to complement traditional ways of measuring the refractivity profile in maritime environments which rely on direct sensing of the environmental parameters. Higher temporal and spatial resolution of the refractivity profile, together with a lower cost and convenience of operations have been the promising factors that brought RFC under consideration. Presented is an overview of the basic concepts, research and achievements in the field of RFC. Topics that require more attention in future studies also are discussed.