How do meteoroids affect Venus's and Mars's ionospheres?



Recent discoveries in the ionospheres of Venus and Mars of layers of metal ions that have been known to exist on Earth for decades have opened a new area for observationally constrained comparative planetology. These new observations raise four questions, amenable to study with current data and models, whose solutions will collectively answer the titular question of this article.


The author acknowledges discussions with Kerri Cahoy, Tolis Christou, Dave Hinson, Michael Mendillo, Martin Pätzold, John Plane, Silvia Tellmann, and Jeremie Vaubaillon.