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Keywords:

  • solar irradiance cause flood drought;
  • monsoon;
  • solar minimum;
  • environmental impact;
  • human civilizations

Sunspots—visibly dark spots on the Sun's surface caused by intense magnetic activity—are very active regions of the Sun. The Sun is referred to as quiet during the sunspot minima, when very few sunspots are seen; the activity of the Sun increases with higher numbers of sunspots. The variation in the number of sunspots during the solar minima and maxima shows a cyclic behavior with a period of about 11 years.