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Keywords:

  • Maunder Minimum;
  • heliospheric magnetic field;
  • solar variability;
  • sunspot number

Streaming into the solar system at nearly the speed of light, galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are a high-energy mix of protons, electrons, and atomic nuclei. As they pass into reach of the outflowing solar wind, the propagation of GCRs is inhibited. Galactic cosmic rays that make it to Earth interact with the atmosphere, creating a shower of heavy isotopes including beryllium-10. Beryllium-10 isotope concentrations recorded in ice cores provide a long-term, high temporal resolution record of galactic cosmic ray flux.