Deep sea hydrothermal plumes and their interaction with oscillatory flows
Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
©2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2012
How to Cite
2012), Deep sea hydrothermal plumes and their interaction with oscillatory flows, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q0AJ01, doi:10.1029/2012GC004188., and (
- Issue published online: 4 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 31 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 APR 2012
- acoustic scintillation;
- hydrothermal plumes;
- oscillatory flows
 The acoustic scintillation method is applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume from Dante within the Main Endeavour vent field (MEF) in the Endeavour Ridge segment. A 40 day time series of the plume's vertical velocity and temperature fluctuations provides a unique opportunity to study deep sea plume dynamics in a tidally varying horizontal cross flow. An integral plume model that takes into account ambient stratification and horizontal cross flows is established from the conservation equations of mass, momentum and density deficit. Using a linear additive entrainment velocity in the model (E = αUm + βU⊥) that is a function of both the plume relative axial velocity (Um) and the relative ambient flow perpendicular to the plume (U⊥) gives consistent results to the experimental data, suggesting entrainment coefficients α = 0.1 and β = 0.6. Also from the integral model, the plume height in a horizontal cross flow (Ua) is shown to scale as 1.8B1/3Ua−1/3N−2/3 for 0.01 ≤ Ua ≤ 0.1 m/s where B is the initial buoyancy transport and N is the ambient stratification, both of which are assumed constant.