Strongly bimodal, basalt-rhyolite volcanism of the High Lava Plains Province of Oregon followed the Middle Miocene flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest and extends to recent time. During the 8 m.y. of volcanism recorded in the central High Lava Plains, in western Harney Basin, three distinct mafic magmatic trends originate from primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiites (HAOT); they are tholeiitic, calcalkaline and ferro-trachytic. Tholeiitic basalts occur throughout the history and their compositions are derived by crystal fractionation while traversing the crust and mixing with evolved mafic magmas. Scavenging of apatite from crustal rocks and minor contamination with felsic melts accounts for P, incompatible element enrichments and increasing tilts of incompatible element patterns with differentiation. The calcalkaline mafic suite occurs in temporal association with abundant silicic volcanism and is the only suite with Fe decreasing with Mg. Calcalkaline compositions are derived from evolved tholeiitic basalt by crystal fractionation coupled with assimilation of felsic crust or crustal melts. The ferro-trachytic suite occurs mainly late, is highly enriched in incompatible element with patterns parallel to tholeiites from which it is derived by protracted fractionation and recharge. The three suites primarily reflect changes in magma flux and crustal interactions in time. High magma flux promotes crustal melting and contamination of tholeiite to make the calcalkaline suite. On the other hand, ferrotrachytic magmas erupted mainly late in the sequence, during magmatic waning and after significant basaltification of the crust.