Pc2 EMIC waves generated high off the equator in the dayside outer magnetosphere



This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Correction to “Pc2 EMIC waves generated high off the equator in the dayside outer magnetosphere” Volume 40, Issue 10, 1950–1951, Article first published online: 28 May 2013


[1] It is generally accepted that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are generated around the equatorial regions and propagate toward the high latitude ionospheres in both hemispheres. Here we describe a prolonged EMIC wave event in the Pc2 (0.1–0.2 Hz) frequency band above the He+ cyclotron frequency detected by the four Cluster satellites as they traversed sunward from L∼ 13 in the outer magnetosphere to the magnetopause, over 13°–20° magnetic latitude north of the equator and across the high latitude cusp region near local magnetic noon. Wave packet energy propagated dominantly along the geomagnetic field direction, confirming this was a traveling EMIC wave rather than a toroidal field line resonance. The energy packets propagated in alternating directions rather than uni-directionally from the equator, implying the wave source was located in a high latitude region away from the equator, where a minimum in the B field is located. The CIS-CODIF H+ion data provided evidence that the waves were generated locally via the ion cyclotron instability. We believe the off-equatorial minimum magnetic field regions may be important source regions for these waves in the outer magnetosphere.