A simple model to relate ionogram signatures to large-scale wave structure



[1] The development of plasma structure in the nighttime equatorial F region, known as equatorial spread F(ESF), appears to be controlled by the preceding presence of large-scale wave structure (LSWS). To understand this process, knowledge of the properties of LSWS is crucial. Information about LSWS appears to reside in two ionogram signatures, multi-reflected echoes (MREs) and the so-called “satellite” traces (STs). However, how LSWS is related to MREs and STs is not yet clear. To gain insight, a tilted, linear reflector, modulated by LSWS, is described and shown to be capable of explaining even the most puzzling forms of MREs and STs. With this kind of model, ionogram signatures can be used to infer the nature of LSWS.