Chlorophyll a in Antarctic sea ice from historical ice core data

Authors

  • K. M. Meiners,

    Corresponding author
    1. Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Kingston, Tasmania, Australia
    2. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    • Corresponding author: K. M. Meiners, Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Channel Highway, Kingston, TAS 7050, Australia. (klaus.meiners@aad.gov.au)

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  • M. Vancoppenolle,

    1. Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat (CNRS/UPMC/IRD/MNHN), IPSL, Paris, France
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  • S. Thanassekos,

    1. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • G. S. Dieckmann,

    1. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Science, Bremerhaven, Germany
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  • D. N. Thomas,

    1. School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Anglesey, UK
    2. Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    3. Arctic Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
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  • J.-L. Tison,

    1. Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
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  • K. R. Arrigo,

    1. Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
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  • D. L. Garrison,

    1. Biological Oceanography Program, Division of Ocean Sciences, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, USA
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  • A. McMinn,

    1. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • D. Lannuzel,

    1. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    2. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • P. van der Merwe,

    1. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    2. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • K. M. Swadling,

    1. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • W. O. Smith Jr.,

    1. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia, USA
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  • I. Melnikov,

    1. P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
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  • B. Raymond

    1. Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Kingston, Tasmania, Australia
    2. Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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Abstract

[1] Sea ice core chlorophyll a data are used to describe the seasonal, regional and vertical distribution of algal biomass in Southern Ocean pack ice. The Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate – Biology (ASPeCt – Bio) circumpolar dataset consists of 1300 ice cores collected during 32 cruises over a period of 25 years. The analyses show that integrated sea ice chlorophyll apeaks in early spring and late austral summer, which is consistent with theories on light and nutrient limitation. The results indicate that on a circum-Antarctic scale, surface, internal and bottom sea ice layers contribute equally to integrated biomass, but vertical distribution shows distinct differences among six regions around the continent. The vertical distribution of sea ice algal biomass depends on sea ice thickness, with surface communities most commonly associated with thin ice (<0.4 m), and ice of moderate thickness (0.4–1.0 m) having the highest probability of forming bottom communities.

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