Toward quantifying discrete groundwater discharge from frozen seepage faces using thermal infrared images
Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013
©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 40, Issue 1, pages 123–127, 16 January 2013
How to Cite
2013), Toward quantifying discrete groundwater discharge from frozen seepage faces using thermal infrared images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 123–127, doi:10.1029/2012GL054315., , and (
- Issue published online: 29 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 22 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 21 OCT 2012
- groundwater discharge ratep;
 Frozen groundwater seeps from discrete features, such as fractures and faults, are common along steep faces of cliffs, mines, quarries, and road cuts in cold environments at high elevations and latitudes. Our objective is to test whether thermal infrared imaging can be used to quantify groundwater discharge from such discrete features in freezing conditions. Discrete seeps and freezing cliff faces were simulated in a cold room laboratory with a systematic series of experiments captured through infrared imaging. Two zones of distinct surface temperatures were observed at the ice surface: a zone of relatively warm and constant surface temperature above a zone with high thermal gradients. Experimental conditions impacted the length of the relative warm zone. A strong correlation is observed between length of the relative warm zone and the discharge rate suggesting that groundwater discharge from discrete features could be quantified using noninvasive infrared imaging.