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Keywords:

  • EMIC waves;
  • THEMIS;
  • energetic particle dynamics;
  • inner magnetosphere;
  • solar wind pressure;
  • wave-particle interactions

[1] Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are transverse plasma waves generated by anisotropic proton distributions with Tperp > Tpara. They are believed to play an important role in the dynamics of the ring current and potentially, of the radiation belts. Therefore it is important to know their localization in the magnetosphere and the magnetospheric and solar wind conditions which lead to their generation. Our earlier observations from three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes demonstrated that strong magnetospheric compressions associated with high solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdyn) may drive EMIC waves in the inner dayside magnetosphere, just inside the plasmapause. Previously, magnetospheric compressions were found to generate EMIC waves mainly close to the magnetopause. In this work we use an automated detection algorithm of EMIC Pc1 waves observed by THEMIS between May 2007 to December 2011 and present the occurrence rate of those waves as a function of L-shell, magnetic local time (MLT), Pdyn, AE, and SYMH. Consistent with earlier studies we find that the dayside (sunward of the terminator) outer magnetosphere is a preferential location for EMIC activity, with the occurrence rate in this region being strongly controlled by solar wind dynamic pressure. High EMIC occurrence, preferentially at 12–15 MLT, is also associated with high AE. Our analysis of 26 magnetic storms with Dst < −50 nT showed that the storm-time EMIC occurrence rate in the inner magnetosphere remains low (<10%). This brings into question the importance of EMIC waves in influencing energetic particle dynamics in the inner magnetosphere during disturbed geomagnetic conditions.