Disk-resolved observations of Phobos acquired by OMEGA at a range of lighting and viewing geometries were fit with the Hapke photometric function to solve for the single particle phase function and single scattering albedos from 0.4 to 2.5 μm. Single scattering albedos were recovered from CRISM observations of Phobos using the OMEGA derived single particle phase function and are similar to those from OMEGA data. Both the ubiquitous red unit and the blue unit around the crater Stickney exhibit a smooth red-sloped spectrum, with a steeper continuum in the redder unit. Single scattering albedos retrieved from CRISM measurements of Deimos are similar to those for the red unit on Phobos. Retrieval of single scattering albedos from OMEGA data at 2.8 to 5.0 μm has greater uncertainty, but results in this wavelength range are also consistent with a smooth, red-sloped spectrum. Phobos' and Deimos' low reflectances, lack of mafic absorption features, and red spectral slopes are incompatible with even highly space weathered chondritic or basaltic compositions. These results, coupled with similarities to laboratory spectra of Tagish Lake (possible D-type asteroid analog) and CM carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, show that Phobos and Deimos have primitive compositions. If the moons formed in situ rather than by capture of primitive bodies, primitive materials must have been added to the Martian system during accretion or a late stage impact.