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Around the world there are many high-pressure devices coupled to synchrotron radiation sources. Of these facilities, MAX80 (for multianvil high-pressure X ray system) at the Photon Factory (the synchrotron radiation laboratory at the National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics in Tsukuba, Japan ) has a unique capability for experiments that are simultaneously high pressure and high temperature. Because of MAX80's large sample chamber, a resistance heater can be installed so that the specimen can be heated uniformly to 1600°C at pressure. Scientists have employed this apparatus for in situ X ray observations of phase transitions, measurements of silicate melts, and other high-pressure experiments.