Ionized matter—plasma—is the over-whelmingly dominant constituent of the universe as a whole, and matter in the plasma state is characterized by a complexity that vastly exceeds that exhibited in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. Correspondingly, the physical and especially the electrodynamic properties of the plasma are still far from well understood.;
While it is now universally acknowledged that our universe is a plasma universe, the physical understanding of this universe has remained in doubt. This is primarily because interpreting the physical processes from high-energy, optical, infrared, and radio telescope observations critically depend on our understanding of matter in the plasma state.