Greenhouse effect. Global warming. These problems have propelled society into seeking to detect, understand, and predict climate change. Scientists know that global and regional cycling of the Earth's heat, fresh water, and carbon play important roles in climate change. Ocean reservoirs of these properties are much larger than those of the atmosphere. Key to understanding and modeling climate change, therefore, is knowing how heat, fresh water, and carbon are exchanged between ocean and atmosphere and stored and transported between the upper and deep ocean layers and between the equatorial and polar ocean regions.