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Simulations with a model of atmospheric dynamics, aerosols, and radiative transfer show that both ground cooling and warming are possible after one diurnal cycle beneath smoke plumes of moderate visible absorption optical depths representative of oil smoke down-wind of Kuwait. For an elevated smoke plume, the calculated ground temperature changes range from +1 to −6 K, while within the smoke plume temperature increases range from 0 to 8 K. The response of the ground temperature and boundary layer dynamics depends strongly upon the surface characteristics with deserts exhibiting the strongest cooling of all land use types. The variability of meteorology generally precludes the possibility of a persistent smoke plume, or its effects, over any location other than the immediate surroundings of a persistent fire. For the Middle East these results suggest persistent effects only near Kuwait, with short-term coolings of about 5 K over desert regions a few thousand kilometers downwind of Kuwait.