Upgrades for efficient three-dimensional ionospheric ray tracing: Investigation of HF near vertical incidence sky wave effects
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. Published in 1991 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 971–980, July-August 1991
How to Cite
1991), Upgrades for efficient three-dimensional ionospheric ray tracing: Investigation of HF near vertical incidence sky wave effects, Radio Sci., 26(4), 971–980, doi:10.1029/91RS00582.(
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JAN 1991
- Manuscript Received: 30 AUG 1990
An earlier, three-dimensional ray-tracing program has been upgraded to include magnetic field effects, variable step sizes, improved propagation loss computation, and efficient homing and focusing computation algorithms. A combination of fourth-order Runge-Kutta and Adams methods, with error control and extension to variable step size, has been included. The program is applied to an investigation of high-frequency near vertical incidence sky wave (NVIS) effects. Model simulations of oblique ionograms are found to be consistent with experiment. Implications for NVIS geolocation are discussed.