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A specific and unique property of the solid state is its regular internal structure, which effectively acts as a memory to store information about its deformation history. Most of the Earth, except for the liquid outer core, is in the solid state and is composed of crystals. Of particular importance for processes in the Earth's crust, such as volcanic activity, earthquakes, and mountain building, is the deformation of the mantle. One of the goals of geophysical research is to understand this deformation and to model its evolution.