Chlorine, fluorine, and sulfur emissions from Mount Erebus, Antarctica and estimated contributions to the Antarctic atmosphere



The discharge rates of halogens in aerosols and gases emitted from Mount Erebus between December 1986 and January 1991 were estimated by combining element-to-sulfur ratios on filter samples with SO2 output measured by COSPEC. The halogen and sulfur content of the gas vary in a quasi-cyclical pattern possibly because of a heterogeneous distribution of volatiles in the Erebus magmatic system. The emission rates of HF and HCl have increased twofold since 1986 reaching 6 and 13.3 Gg yr−1, respectively, in 1991, making Erebus an important contributor of halogens to the Antarctic atmosphere.