A two-dimensional model with coupled dynamics, radiation, and photochemistry: 1. Simulation of the middle atmosphere


  • Malcolm K. W. Ko,

  • Hans R. Schneider,

  • Run-Lie Shia,

  • Debra K. Weisenstein,

  • Nien-Dak Sze


Spatial and seasonal distribution of ozone and other trace gases are simulated using the interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere (Schneider et al., 1989) updated to include full gas phase chemistry. The model consists of a primitive equation dynamics module, a full radiative transfer scheme, and a comprehensive gas phase chemistry module. The circulation is derived from heating rates in the stratosphere that are calculated using model-generated ozone. In the troposphere, parameterized heating rates are adopted. The eddy momentum flux divergence in the zonal mean momentum equation is given by the eddy fluxes of potential vorticity. Eddy fluxes of potential vorticity and tracers are parameterized using a set of predetermined diffusion coefficients. The adopted values for Kyy, which are based on values derived by Newman et al. (1988), show a hemispherical asymmetry in that the values in the lower stratosphere are consistently smaller in the southern hemisphere. The asymmetry in Kyy and in the parameterization of the tropospheric heating rate results in an asymmetry in the circulation giving rise to unique signatures in the trace gas distributions. The model successfully simulates the observed asymmetry in the column abundance of the springtime ozone maxima between northern and southern hemisphere. Results for other trace gases are in agreement with the gross observed features although specific differences exist.