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Approximately 900 whole air samples were collected and assayed for selected C2-C10 hydrocarbons and seven halocarbons during the 5-week Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B conducted in eastern Canadian wetland areas. In more than half of the 46 vertical profiles flown, enhanced nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) concentrations attributable to plumes from Canadian forest fires were observed. Urban plumes, also enhanced in many NMHCs, were separately identified by their high correlation with elevated levels of perchloroethene. Emission factors relative to ethane were determined for 21 hydrocarbons released from Canadian biomass burning. Using these data for ethane, ethyne, propane, n-butane, and carbon monoxide enhancements from the literature, global emissions of these four NMHCs were estimated. Because of its very short atmospheric lifetime and its below detection limit background mixing ratio, 1,3-butadiene is an excellent indicator of recent combustion. No statistically significant emissions of nitrous oxide, isoprene, or CFC 12 were observed in the biomass-burning plumes encountered during ABLE 3B. The presence of the short-lived biogenically emitted isoprene at altitudes as high as 3000 m implies that mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was rapid. Although background levels of the longer-lived NMHCs in this Canadian region increase during the fire season, isoprene still dominated local hydroxyl radical photochemistry within the PBL except in the immediate vicinity of active fires. The average biomass-burning emission ratios for hydrocarbons from an active fire sampled within minutes of combustion were, relative to ethane, ethene, 2.45; ethyne 0.57; propane, 0.25; propene, 0.73; propyne, 0.06; n-butane, 0.09; i;-butane, 0.01; 1-butene, 0.14; cis-2-butene, 0.02; trans-2-butene, 0.03; i-butylene, 0.07; 1,3-butadiene, 0.12; n-pentane, 0.05; i-pentane, 0.03; 1-pentene, 0.06; n-hexane, 0.05; 1-hexene, 0.07; benzene, 0.37; toluene, 0.16.