Propagation characteristics of the ELF emissions observed by the satellite Akebono in the magnetic equatorial region


  • Yoshiya Kasahara,

  • Hideki Kenmochi,

  • Iwane Kimura


Emissions with their frequencies below 100 Hz are often observed by the Akebono satellite in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equatorial plane. These ELF emissions are classified into two types: One is an ion cyclotron wave below the local proton cyclotron frequency and the other is assumed to be magnetosonic wave observed not only below but also above the local proton cyclotron frequency. The wave normal directions of the latter type of emissions were estimated by using the wave distribution function method. It is found that the emissions are propagating with their wave normal direction nearly perpendicular to the meridian plane. The propagation characteristics of these emissions are also examined by ray tracing including the effects of ions. The ray tracing study clarified that the wave can propagate around the plasmapause because of the trapping effect of density gradient. In this paper we propose that these emissions are generated just outside the plasmapause and are propagating around the plasmapause with their wave normal nearly perpendicular to the geomagnetic field line and to the meridian plane.