Epidemiologic studies suggesting a possible link between exposure to ELF magnetic fields and increased cancer risk have spurred interest in the assessment of field levels and exposures in residences, the workplace, and other environments. Characteristics such as high degrees of spatial and temporal variability and the presence of multiple frequencies can complicate assessment strategies. Instrumentation development has proceeded rapidly, and a number of measurement systems of varying sophistication are now commercially available. For situations where measurement is not feasible or practical, computer modeling is expanding the scope of exposure estimation. Health-oriented studies and measurement surveys are adding to a growing database of field and exposure levels.