In a recent Eos article, Walker  presents evidence for a correlation between extreme lows in the Southern Oscillation Index and episodic seismic activity on the southern East Pacific Rise. He speculates that the causative link between seismicity and El Niños may be direct and indirect thermal effects associated with massive submarine volcanic and hydrothermal activity that may accompany the seismic swarms. In particular, he cites an unusual earthquake swarm at 18°, 116° in 1991/1992 and notes that large numbers of volcanos and young, extensive lava flows have been mapped near the East Pacific Rise from about 15° to 19° [Scheirer et al., 1993].
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