Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOχ emissions
Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012
Copyright 1995 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)
Volume 100, Issue D6, pages 11447–11464, 20 June 1995
How to Cite
1995), Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOχ emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D6), 11447–11464, doi:10.1029/95JD00370., and (
- Issue published online: 21 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 JAN 1995
- Manuscript Received: 31 MAY 1994
We construct a global, temperature and precipitation dependent, empirical model of soil-biogenic NOx emissions using 6-hour general circulation model forcing. New features of this source relative to the latest published ones by Dignon et al.  and Muller  include synoptic-scale modeling of “pulsing” (the emissions burst following the wetting of a dry soil), a biome dependent scheme to estimate canopy recapture of NOχ, and an explicit linear dependence of emission on N fertilizer rate for agricultural soils. Our best estimate for annual above-canopy emissions is 5.5 Tg N (NOχ) with a range of 3.3–7.7 Tg N. Globally, the strongest emitters are agriculture, grasslands, and tropical rain forests, accounting for 41%, 35%, and 16% of the annual budget, respectively. “Pulsing” contributes 1.3 Tg N annually. In temperate regions, agriculture dominates emission, and in tropical regions, grassland dominates. Canopy recapture is significant, consuming, on average, possibly 50% of soil emissions. In temperate regions, periodic temperature changes associated with synoptic-scale disturbances can cause emission fluctuations of up to 20 ng N m−2 s−1, indicating a close correlation between emission and warm weather events favorable to O3/smog formation. By the year 2025, increasing use of nitrogen fertilizer may raise total annual emissions to 6.9 Tg N with agriculture accounting for more than 50% of the global source. Finally, biomass burning may add up to an additional 0.6 Tg N globally by stimulating emissions for a short period after the burn.