SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aber, J. D., K. J. Nadelhoffer, P. Steudler, J. M. Melillo, Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems, BioScience, 396, 378386, 1989.
  • Amthor, J. S., Terrestrial higher-plant response to increasing atmospheric [CO2] in relation to the global carbon cycle, Global Change Biol., 14, 243274, 1995.
  • Asman, W. A. H., H. A. Van Jaarsveld, A variable-resolution transport model applied for NHx in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 26A, 445464, 1992.
  • Bakwin, P. S., S. C. Wofsy, S. M. Fan, Measurements of reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) within and above a tropical forest canopy in the wet season, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1676516772, 1990a.
  • Bakwin, P. S., S. C. Wofsy, S. M. Fan, M. Keller, S. Trumbore, J. M. deCosta, Emission of nitric oxide (NO) from tropical forest soils and exchange of NO between the forest canopy and atmospheric boundary layers, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,75516,764, 1990b.
  • Baron, J. S., D. S. Ojima, E. A. Holland, W. J. Parton, Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: Implications for aquatic systems, Biogeochemistry, 27, 6182, 1994.
  • Bauer, A., A. L. Black, Effect of tillage management on soil organic carbon and nitrogen, Farm Res., 406, 2731, 1983.
  • Benkovitz, C. M., M. T. Scholtz, J. Dignon, J. Pacyna, T. Acholtz, L. Tarrason, E. M. Voldner, T. E. Graedel, Global gridded inventories of anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen, J. Geophys. Res., 1996.
  • Brasseur, G. P., D. A. Hauglustaine, S. Walters, Chemical compounds in the remote Pacific troposphere: Comparison between MLOPEX measurements and chemical transport model calculations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1479514813, 1996.
  • Braswell, B. H., Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales, Ph.D. thesis,Univ. of N.H.,Durham,1996.
  • Chameides, W. L., P. S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, H. Levy II, Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production, Science, 264, 7477, 1994.
  • Ciais, P., P. P. Tans, J. W. C. White, M. Trolier, R. J. Francey, J. A. Berry, D. R. Randall, P. J. Sellers, J. G. Collatz, D. S. Schimel, Partitioning of ocean and land uptake of CO2 as inferred by ∂13C measurements from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 50515070, 1995.
  • Crutzen, P. J., L. T. Gidel, A two-dimensional photochemical model of the atmosphere, 2, The tropospheric budgets of the anthropogenic chlorocarbon, CO, CH4, CH3Cl and the effect of various NOx sources on tropospheric ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 66416661, 1983.
  • Davidson, E. A., Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems, Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrous Oxides, and HalomethanesJ. E. Rogers, W. E. Whitman, 219236, Am. Soc. for Microbiol., Washington, D.C., 1991.
  • Davidson, E. A., I. L. Ackerman, Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils, Biogeochemistry, 20, 161194, 1993.
  • Dentener, F. J., P. J. Crutzen, Reaction of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols: Impact on the global distributions of NOx, O3, and OH, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 71497163, 1993.
  • Dentener, F. J., P. J. Crutzen, A three-dimensional model of the global ammonia cycle, J. Atmos. Chem., 19, 331369, 1994.
  • Durka, W., E.-D. Schulze, S. Voerkelius, Effects of forest decline on uptake and leaching of deposited nitrate determined from 15N and 18O measurements, Nature, 372, 765767, 1994.
  • Edgerton, E. S., T. F. Lavery, R. P. Boksleitner, Preliminary data from the USEPA dry deposition network: 1989, Enviromental Pollution, 752, 145155, 1992.
  • Esser, G., Modeling global terrestrial sources and sinks of CO2 with special reference to soil organic matter, Soils and the Greenhouse EffectA. F. Bouwman, 247262, John Wiley, New York, 1990.
  • Galloway, J. N., H. Levy II, P. S. Kasibhatla, Year 2020: Consequences of population growth and development of deposition of oxidized nitrogen, Ambio, 232, 120123, 1994.
  • Galloway, J. N., W. H. Schlesinger, H. Levy II, A. Michaels, J. L. Schnoor, Nitrogen fixation: Anthropogenic enhancementenvironmental response, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9, 235252, 1995.
  • Hertel, O., R. Berkowicz, J. Christensen, O. Hov, Test of two numerical schemes for use in atmospheric transport-chemistry models, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 25912611, 1993.
  • Houghton, J. T., L. G. Meira Filho, The IPCC Report on Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1994.
  • Hudson, R. J. M., S. A. Gherini, R. A. Goldstein, Modeling the global carbon cycle: Nitrogen fertilization of the terrestrial biosphere and the “missing” CO2 sink, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 83, 307333, 1994.
  • Jacob, D. J., P. S. Bakwin, Cycling of NOx in tropical forest canopies, Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrogen Oxides, and HalomethanesJ. E. Rogers, W. B. Whitman, 237254, Am. Soc. for Microbiol., Washington, D.C., 1991.
  • Jaeger, L., Monatskarten des Niederschlags für die ganze Erde, Beri Dtsch. Wetterdienstes, 139, 1976.
  • Johnson, D. W., G. S. Henderson, D. E. Todd, Changes in nutrient distribution in forests and soils of Walder Branch Watershed, Tennessee, over an eleven-year period, Biogeochemistry, 5, 275293, 1988.
  • Kanakidou, M., Chemistry in CTMsCombined IGAC meeting: Global integration and modelling (GIM)/global emissions inventory activity (GEIA)/global atmospheric chemistry surveyFairfax, Va., 1995.
  • Kasibhatla, P., H. Levy, A. Klonecki, W. L. Chameides, Three-dimensional view of the large-scale tropospheric ozone distribution over the North Atlantic Ocean during summer, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2930529316, 1996.
  • Kasibhatla, P. S., NOy from sub-sonic aircraft emissions: A global three-dimensional model study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2016, 17071710, 1993b.
  • Kasibhatla, P. S., H. Levy II, W. J. Moxim, Global NOx, HNO3, PAN, and NO, distributions from fossil fuel combustion emissions: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 71657180, 1993a.
  • Kasibhatla, P. S., H. Levy II, W. J. Moxim, W. L. Chameides, The relative impact of stratospheric photochemical production on tropospheric NOy levels: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1863118646, 1991.
  • Keeling, C. D., Global historical CO2 emissions, Trends '93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL.CDIAC:65T. A. Boden, D. P. Kaiser, R. J. Sepanski, F. W. Stoss, 501504, CDIAC, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1994.
  • Keeling, C. D., R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, H. Roeloffzen, A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data, Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and Western AmericasD. H. Peterson, 165236, American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph Board, Washington, D.C., 1989.
  • Kohlmaier, G. H., A. Janecek, M. Plochl, Modelling response of vegetation to both excess CO2 and airborne nitrogen compounds within a global carbon cycle model, Advances in Environmental ModellingA. Marani, 207234, Elsevier, New York, 1988.
  • Lamarque, J. F., G. Brasseur, P. G. Hess, J. F. Müller, Three-dimensional study of the relative contributions of the different nitrogen sources in the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2295522968, 1996.
  • Levy, H., P. S. Kasibhatla, W. J. Moxim, J. A. Logan, The global impact of biomass burning on tropospheric reactive nitrogen, Proceedings Chapman Conference on Global Biomass BurningJ. Levine, 263269, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991.
  • Levy, H., W. J. Moxim, Simulated global distribution and deposition of reactive nitrogen emitted by fossil fuel combustion, Tellus Ser. B, 41, 256271, 1989b.
  • Levy, H., W. J. Moxim, P. S. Kasibhatla, A global three-dimensional time-dependent lightning source of tropospheric NOx, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2291122922, 1996.
  • Levy, H., W. J. Moxim, P. S. Kasibhatla, Tropospheric NOx: Its sources and distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 1996.
  • Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, N. M. Johnson, Interactions between major biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, Some Perspectives of the Major Biogeochemical CyclesG. E. Likens, 93112, John Wiley, New York, 1981.
  • Logan, J. A., Tropospheric chemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 72107254, 1981.
  • Logan, J. A., Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere: Global and regional budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1078510807, 1983.
  • Marland, G., R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, Global, regional and national CO2 emissions, Trends '93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL.CDIAC-65T. Boden, D. P. Kaiser, R. J. Sepanski, F. W. Stoss, 505584, CDIAC, Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1994.
  • Matson, P. A., T. Billow, J. Panek, I. Ortiz Monasterio, R. Naylor, Fertilizer management and consequences for nitrogen trace gases emissions from Mexican wheat systems, Ecol. Soc. of Am., Providence, R.I., 1996.
  • Matthews, E., Global vegetation and land use: New high-resolution data bases for climate studies, J. Climate Appl. Meteorol., 22, 474487, 1983.
  • McLaughlin, S. B., D. J. Downing, Interactive effects of ambient ozone and climate measured on growth of mature forest trees, Nature, 374, 252254, 1995.
  • McNulty, S. G., J. D. Aber, Effects of chronic nitrogen additions on nitrogen cycling in a high-elevation spruce-fir stand, Can. J. For. Res., 23, 12521263, 1993.
  • Moxim, W. J., H. Levy, P. S. Kasibhatla, Simulated global tropospheric PAN: Its transport and impact on NOx, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1262112638, 1996.
  • Müller, J. F., Geographical distribution and seasonal variation of surface emissions and deposition velocities of atmospheric trace gases, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 37873804, 1992.
  • Müller, J. F., G. Brasseur, IMAGES: A three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 1644516490, 1995.
  • , National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3)/National Trends Network, NADP/NTN Coordination Office, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1995.
  • Nevison, C. D., G. Esser, E. A. Holland, A global model of changing N2O emissions from natural and perturbed soils, Clim. Change, 32, 327378, 1996.
  • Newell, R. E., J. W. Kidson, D. G. Vincent, G. J. Boer, The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extra Tropical Latitudes, , 2, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1974.
  • Oort, A. H., Global atmospheric circulation statistics, 1958–1973, NOAA Prof. Pap14Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., 1983.
  • Parton, W. J., D. S. Schimel, C. V. Cole, D. S. Ojima, Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51, 11731179, 1987.
  • Parton, W. J., J. M. O. Scurlock, D. S. Ojima, Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 74, 785809, 1993.
  • Penner, J. E., C. S. Atherton, J. Dignon, S. J. Ghan, J. J. Walton, Tropospheric nitrogen: A three dimensional study of sources, distributions, and deposition, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 959990, 1991.
  • Penner, J. E., C. S. Atherton, T. E. Graedel, Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds, Global Atmospheric-Biospheric ChemistryR. G. Prinn, 223247, Plenum, New York, 1994.
  • Peterson, B. J., J. M. Melillo, The potential storage of carbon caused by eutrophication of the biosphere, Tellus Ser. B, 37, 117127, 1985.
  • Prather, M., R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and An Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission ScenariosJ. T. Houghton, et al., 75126, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1995.
  • Reich, P. B., Quantifying plant response to ozone: A unifying theory, Tree Physiol., 3, 6391, 1987.
  • Roelofs, G.-J., J. Lelieveld, Distribution and budget of O3 in the troposphere calculated with a chemistry-general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2098320988, 1995.
  • Schimel, D., I. G. Enting, M. Heimann, T. M. L. Wigley, D. Raynaud, D. Alves, U. Siegenthaler, CO2 and the carbon cycle, Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission ScenariosJ. T. Houghton, et al., 3571, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1995.
  • Schimel, D. S., Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle, Global Change Biol., 1, 7791, 1995.
  • Schimel, D. S., Climate and nitrogen controls on the geography and timescales of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 677709, 1996.
  • Schimel, D. S., J. B. H. Braswell, E. A. Holland, R. McKeown, D. S. Ojima, T. H. Painter, W. J. Parton, A. R. Townsend, Climatic, edaphic, and biotic controls over carbon and turnover of carbon in soils, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8, 279293, 1994.
  • Schindler, D. W., S. E. Bayley, The biosphere as an increasing sink for atmospheric carbon: Estimates from increased nitrogen deposition, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7, 717733, 1993.
  • Schlesinger, W. H., Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1991.
  • Schlesinger, W. H., A. E. Hartley, A global budget for atmospheric NH3, Biogeochemistry, 15, 191211, 1992.
  • Schulze, E.-D., Air pollution and forest decline in a spruce (Picea abies) forest, Science, 244, 776783, 1989.
  • Shea, D. J., Climatological Atlas: 1950–1979, NCAR Tech. NoteNCAR/TN-269+STRNatl. Ctr. Atmos. Res., 1986.
  • Shepherd, M. F., S. Barzetti, D. R. Hastie, The production of atmospheric NOx and N2O from a fertilized agricultural soil, Atmos. Environ., 25, 19611969, 1991.
  • Tans, P. P., I. Y. Fung, I. G. Enting, Storage versus flux budgets: The terrestrial uptake of CO2 during the 1980's, Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climate System: Will the Warming Feed the WarmingG. M. Woodwell, F. T. Mackenzie, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994.
  • Townsend, A. R., B. H. Braswell, E. A. Holland, J. E. Penner, Spatial and temporal patterns in potential terrestrial carbon storage resulting from deposition of fossil fuel derived nitrogen, Ecol. Appl., 63, 806814, 1996.
  • Trenberth, D. E., J. G. Olson, Intercomparisons of NMC and ECMWF global, NCAR Tech. NoteNCAR/TN-229+STRNatl. Ctr. Atmos. Res., 1988a.
  • Trenberth, D. E., J. G. Olson, ECMWF global Analyses 1979–1986: Circulation statistics and data evaluation, NCAR Tech. NoteNCAR/TN-300+STRNatl. Ctr. Atmos. Res., 1988b.
  • Vitousek, P. M., Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change, Ecology, 75, 18611876, 1994.
  • Yienger, J. J., H. Levy II, An empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOx emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 1144711464, 1995.
  • Zimmermann, P. H., MOGUNTIA: A handy global tracer modelProceedings of the Sixteenth NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its ApplicationNew York, 1988.
  • Zimmermann, P. H., J. Feichter, H. K. Rath, P. J. Crutzen, W. Weiss, A global three-dimensional source-receptor model investigation using 85Kr, Atmos. Environ., 23, 2535, 1989.