SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adushkin, V. V., I. V. Nemchinov, Consequences of impacts of cosmic bodies on the surface of the Earth, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 721778, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • Ahrens, T. J., A. W. Harris, Deflection and fragmentation of near-Earth asteroids, Nature, 360, 429433, 1992.
  • Ahrens, T. J., J. D. O'Keefe, Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 13th, Part 2,J. Geophys. Res., 88, suppl., A799A806, 1983.
  • Alvarez, L., W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, H. V. Michel, Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, Science, 208, 10951108, 1980.
  • Alvarez, W., P. Claeys, S. W. Kieffer, Emplacement of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary shocked quartz from Chicxulub crater, Science, 269, 930935, 1995.
  • Anders, E., N. Grevesse, Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197214, 1989.
  • Argyle, E., The global fallout signature of the K-T bolide impact, Icarus, 77, 220222, 1989.
  • Bath, M., Earthquake magnitude--Recent research and current trends, Earth Sci. Rev., 17, 315398, 1981.
  • Ben-Menahem, A., Source parameters for the Siberian explosion of June 30, 1908, from analysis and synthesis of seismic signals at four stations, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 11, 135, 1975.
  • Bohor, B., P. J. Modreski, E. E. Foord, Shocked quartz in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays: Evidence for a global distribution, Science, 236, 705709, 1987a.
  • Bohor, B., D. M. Triplehorn, D. J. Nichols, H. T. Millard, Dinosaurs, spherules, and the “magic” layer: A new K-T boundary clay site in Wyoming, Geology, 15, 896899, 1987b.
  • Boslough, M., D. Crawford, A. Robinson, T. Trucano, Mass and penetration depth of Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments from time-resolved photometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 15551558, 1994.
  • Bourgeois, J., T. A. Hansen, P. L. Wiberg, E. G. Kauffman, A Tsunami deposit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Texas, Science, 214, 567570, 1988.
  • Brasseur, G., S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere, 452, D. Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1986.
  • Brett, R., The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction: A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 36033606, 1992.
  • Bronshten, V. A., Physics of Meteroic Phenomena, 356, D. Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1983.
  • Brooks, R. B., R. D. Reeves, D. E. Ryasn, J. Holzbecher, J. D. Collen, V. E. Neall, J. Lee, Elemental anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Woodside Creek, New Zealand, Science, 226, 539542, 1984.
  • Chapman, C. R., D. Morrison, Impacts on the Earth by asteroids and comets: Assessing the hazard, Nature, 367, 3339, 1994.
  • Chyba, C. F., Explosions of small Spacewatch objects in the Earth's atmosphere, Nature, 363, 701703, 1993.
  • Chyba, C. F., P. Thomas, K. Zahnle, The 1908 Tunguska event: Atmospheric disruption of a stony asteroid, Nature, 361, 4044, 1993.
  • Colgate, S. A., A. G. Petschek, Cometary impacts and global distributions of resulting debris by floatingLA-UR-84-3911Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos, N. M., 1985.
  • Covey, C., S. J. Ghan, J. Walton, P. R. Weissman, Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 263270, 1990.
  • Covey, C., S. L. Thompson, P. R. Weissman, M. C. MacCracken, Global climatic effects of atmospheric dust from an asteroid or comet impact on Earth, Global Planet. Change, 9, 263273, 1994.
  • Crutzen, P. J., Acid rain at the K-T boundary, Nature, 330, 108109, 1987.
  • Crutzen, P. J., M. O. Andreae, Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles, Science, 250, 16691678, 1990.
  • Crutzen, P. J., J. W. Birks, The atmosphere after a nuclear war: Twilight at noon, Ambio, 11, 114125, 1982.
  • D'Hondt, S., M. E. Pilson, H. Sigurdsson, A. K. Hanson Jr., S. Carey, Surface-water acidification and extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Geology, 22, 983986, 1994.
  • Eaton, J. P., D. H. Richter, W. U. Ault, The tsunami of May 23, 1960, on the island of Hawaii, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 51, 135157, 1961.
  • Emiliani, C., E. B. Kraus, E. M. Shoemaker, Sudden death at the end of the Mesozoic, Earth Planet. Sci., 55, 317334, 1981.
  • Feder, J., Fractals, Plenum, New York, 1988.
  • Garcia, A. W., H. L. Butler, Numerical simulation of tsunamis originating in the Peru-Chile trench, Coastal Engineering, Proceedings of the 15th Coastal Engineering Conference, 1, 10251043, Am. Soc. of Civ. Eng., New York, 1977.
  • Gault, D. E., C. P. Sonett, Laboratory simulation of pelagic asteroidal impact: Atmospheric injection, benthic topography, and the surface wave radiation field, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 6992, 1982.
  • Glasstone, S., P. J. Dolan, The Effects of Nuclear Weapons3, U.S. Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D.C., 1977.
  • Hammel, H., et al., Hubble space telescope imaging of Jupiter: Atmospheric phenomena created by the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, Science, 267, 12881296, 1995.
  • Harwell, M. A., T. C. Hutchinson, Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War, II, Ecological and Agricultural Effects, SCOPE 28, John Wiley, New York, 1989.
  • Hildebrand, A., G. T. Penfield, D. A. Kring, M. Pilkington, A. Camargo, S. B. Jacobsen, W. V. Boynton, Chicxulub crater: A possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, Geology, 19, 867871, 1991.
  • Hills, J. G., M. P. Goda, The fragmentation of small asteroids in the atmosphere, Astron. J., 105, 11141144, 1993.
  • Hills, J. G., I. V. Nemchinov, S. P. Popov, A. V. Teterev, Tsunami generated by small asteroid impacts, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 779790, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • Hunten, D. M., R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, Smoke and dust particles of meteoric origin in the mesosphere and stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 13421357, 1980.
  • Ivany, L. C., R. J. Salawitch, Carbon isotopic evidence for biomass burning at the K-T boundary, Geology, 21, 487490, 1993.
  • Jensen, E., O. B. Toon, Ice nucleation in the upper troposphere: Sensitivity to aerosol composition and size distribution, temperature, and cooling rate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 212, 20192022, 1994.
  • Jessberger, E. K., J. Kissel, J. Rahe, The composition of comets, Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite AtmospheresS. K. Attreya, J. B. Pollack, M. S. Matthews, 167191, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1989.
  • Jones, E. M., J. W. Kodis, Atmospheric effects of large body impacts: The first few minutes, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 175186, 1982.
  • Kao, J. C.-Y., G. Glatzmaier, R. C. Malone, R. P. Turco, Global three-dimensional simulations of ozone depletion under post-war conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 13, 2249522512, 1990.
  • Kasting, J. F., T. P. Ackerman, High atmospheric NOx levels and multiple photochemical steady states, J. Atmos. Chem., 3, 321340, 1985.
  • Kasting, J. F., S. M. Richardson, J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, A hybrid model of the CO2 geochemical cycle and its application to large impact events, Am. J. Sci., 286, 361389, 1986.
  • Kinne, S., O. B. Toon, M. J. Prather, Buffering of stratospheric circulation by changing amounts of tropical ozone: A Pinatubo case study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 19271930, 1992.
  • Krinov, E. L., Giant Meteorites, Pergamon, Tarrytown, N.Y., 1966.
  • Lacis, A., J. Hansen, M. Sato, Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 16071610, 1992.
  • Lewis, J. S., C. G. H. Watkins, H. Hartman, R. G. Prinn, Chemical consequences of major impact events on Earth, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 215221, 1982.
  • Malone, R. C., L. H. Auer, G. Glatzmaier, M. C. Wood, O. B. Toon, The influence of solar heating and precipitation scavenging on the simulated lifetime of post-nuclear war smoke, Science, 230, 317319, 1985.
  • Malone, R. C., L. H. Auer, G. Glatzmaier, M. C. Wood, O. B. Toon, Nuclear winter: Three-dimensional simulations including interactive transport, scavenging, and solar heating of smoke, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 10391053, 1986.
  • Manabe, S., R. F. Strickler, Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment, J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 361385, 1964.
  • Manabe, S., R. T. Wetherald, Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity, J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 241259, 1967.
  • McCord, T. B., J. Morris, D. Persing, E. Tagliaferri, C. Jacobs, R. Spalding, L. Grady, R. Schmidt, Detection of a meteoroid entry into the Earth's atmosphere on February 1st, 1994, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 32453250, 1995.
  • McKinnon, W. B., C. R. Chapman, K. R. Housen, Cratering of the Uranian satellites, UranusJ. T. Bergstralh, E. D. Miner, M. S. Matthews, 629692, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1991.
  • McKinnon, W. B., K. Zahnle, B. Ivanov, andH. J. Melosh, Cratering on Venus: Models and observations, inVenus, edited byS. Bougher, D. M. Hunten, R. Phillips, andM. S. Matthews, Univ. of Ariz. Press,Tucson, in press,1996.
  • Melosh, H. J., The mechanics of large meteoroid impacts in the Earth's oceans, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 121127, 1982.
  • Melosh, H. J., Impact cratering. A Geologic Process, 245, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1989.
  • Melosh, H. J., I. V. Nemchinov, Solar asteroid diversion, Nature, 366, 2122, 1993.
  • Melosh, H. J., A. M. Vickery, Melt droplet formation in energetic impact events, Nature, 350, 494497, 1991.
  • Melosh, H. J., N. M. Schneider, K. Zahnle, D. Latham, Ignition of global wildfires at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, Nature, 343, 251254, 1990.
  • Montanari, A., R. L. Hay, W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, H. V. Michel, L. W. Alvarez, J. Smit, Spheroids at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary are altered impact droplets of basaltic composition, Geology, 11, 668671, 1983.
  • Morrison, D., The Spaceguard Survey: Report of the NASA International Near-Earth Object Detection WorkshopJet Propul. Lab., Pasadena, Calif., 1992.
  • Morrison, D., C. R. Chapman, P. Slovic, The impact hazard, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 5992, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • , National Research Council, The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange, 193, Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, D.C., 1985.
  • Nuttli, O. W., The Mississippi valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812: Intensities, ground motion and magnitudes, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 63, 227248, 1973.
  • O'Keefe, J. D., T. J. Ahrens, Impact mechanisms of large bolides interacting with Earth and their implication to extinction mechanisms, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 103120, 1982.
  • Pinto, J. P., R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1116511174, 1989.
  • Polanskey, C. A., T. J. Ahrens, Scaling craters in carbonates: Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of shock damage, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 56215638, 1994.
  • Pollack, J. B., O. B. Toon, A. Summers, B. Baldwin, C. Sagan, W. vanCamp, Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change, Nature, 263, 551555, 1976.
  • Pope, K. O., A. C. Ocampo, C. E. Duller, Mexican site for the K-T impact crater?, Nature, 351, 105, 1991.
  • Pope, K. O., K. H. Baines, A. C. Ocampo, B. A. Ivanov, Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: Results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 128, 719725, 1994.
  • Prinn, R., B. Fegley, Bolide impacts, acid rain, and biospheric traumas at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 83, 115, 1987.
  • Pueschel, R. F., P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: Aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12,91512,922, 1994.
  • Rabinowitz, D. L., T. Gehrels, J. V. Scotti, R. S. McMillan, M. L. Perry, W. Wisniewski, S. M. Larson, E. S. Howell, B. E. A. Mueller, Evidence for a near-Earth asteroid belt, Nature, 363, 704706, 1993.
  • Rabinowitz, D. L., E. Bowell, E. M. Shoemaker, K. Muinmonen, The population of Earth-crossing asteroids, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 285312, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • Schmidt, R. M., K. R. Housen, Some recent advances in the scaling of impact and explosion cratering, Int. J. Impact Eng., 5, 543560, 1987.
  • Schmitz, B., P. Andersson, J. Dahl, Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns-Klint, Denmark, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 52, 229236, 1988.
  • Schultz, P. H., D. E. Gault, Seismic effects from major basin formation on the Moon and Mercury, Moon, 12, 159177, 1975.
  • Schultz, P. H., D. E. Gault, Prolonged global catastrophes from oblique impacts, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 239261, 1990.
  • Sharpton, V. L., K. Burke, A. Camargo-Zanoguera, S. A. Hall, D. S. Lee, L. E. Marin, G. Suarez-Reynoso, J. M. Quezada-Muneton, P. D. Spudis, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Chicxulub multi-ring impact basin: Size and other characteristics derived from gravity analysis, Science, 261, 15641567, 1993.
  • Shoemaker, E. M., Asteroid and comet bombardment of the Earth, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 11, 461494, 1983.
  • Shoemaker, E. M., R. F. Wolfe, C. S. Shoemaker, Asteroid and comet flux in the neighborhood of Earth, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 155170, 1990.
  • Sigurdsson, H., P. Bonte, L. Turpin, M. Chaussidon, N. Metrich, M. Steinberg, P. Pradel, S. D'Hondt, Geochemical constraints on source region of Cretaceous/Tertiary impact glass, Nature, 353, 839842, 1991.
  • Sigurdsson, H., S. D'Hondt, S. Carey, The impact of the Cretaceous/Tertiary bolide on evaporate terrane and generation of major sulfuric acid aerosol, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 109, 543559, 1992.
  • Sleep, N. H., K. J. Zahnle, J. F. Kasting, H. J. Morowitz, Annihilation of ecosystems by large asteroidal impacts on the early Earth, Nature, 342, 139142, 1989.
  • Smit, J., G. Klaver, Sanadine spherules at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary indicate a large impact event, Nature, 292, 4749, 1981.
  • Smit, J., A. J. T. Romein, A sequence of events across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 74, 155170, 1985.
  • Stommel, H., E. Stommel, Volcano Weather, 177, Seven Seas, Newport, R.I., 1983.
  • Stothers, R. B., The great Tambora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath, Science, 224, 11911198, 1984.
  • Tagliaferri, E., R. Spalding, C. Jacobs, S. P. Worden, A. Erlich, Detection of meteoroid impacts by optical sensors in Earth orbit, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 199220, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • Takata, T., J. D. O'Keefe, T. J. Ahrens, G. Orton, Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: Impact on Jupiter and plume evolution, Icarus, 109, 319, 1994.
  • Toon, O. B., J. P. Pollack, T. P. Ackerman, R. P. Turco, C. P. McKay, M. S. Liu, Evolution of an impact generated dust cloud and its effects on the atmosphere, Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the EarthL. T. Silver, P. H. Schultz, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 190, 187200, 1982.
  • Toon, O. B., R. P. Turco, J. Jordan, J. Goodman, G. Ferry, Physical processes in polar stratospheric ice clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1135911380, 1989.
  • Toon, O. B., K. Zahnle, R. P. Turco, C. Covey, Environmental perturbations caused by impacts, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 791826, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, C. Park, R. C. Whitten, J. B. Pollack, P. Noerdlinger, The Tunguska meteor fall of 1908: Effects on stratospheric ozone, Science, 214, 1923, 1981.
  • Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, C. Park, R. C. Whitten, J. B. Pollack, P. Noerdlinger, An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall, Icarus, 50, 152, 1982.
  • Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions, Science, 222, 12831292, 1983.
  • Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, J. B. Pollack, C. Sagan, Climate and smoke: An appraisal of nuclear winter, Science, 247, 166176, 1990.
  • Van Dorn, W. G., Tsunamis, Adv. Hydrosci., 2, 148, 1965.
  • Van Dorn, W. G., Some tsunami characteristics deducible from tide records, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 353363, 1984.
  • Vickery, A. M., H. J. Melosh, Atmospheric erosion and impactor retention in large impacts, with application to mass extinctions, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 289300, 1990.
  • Vogelmann, A. M., T. P. Ackerman, R. P. Turco, Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions, Nature, 359, 4749, 1992.
  • Weissman, P. R., The cometary impactor flux at Earth, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 171180, 1990.
  • Weissman, P. R., The comet and asteroid impact hazard in perspective, Hazards Due to Comets and AsteroidsT. Gehrels, 11911212, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1994.
  • West, R. A., E. Karkoschka, A. J. Friedson, M. Seymour, K. H. Baines, H. Hammel, Impact debris particles in Jupiter's stratosphere, Science, 267, 12961301, 1995.
  • Wolbach, W. S., R. S. Lewis, E. Anders, Cretaceous extinctions: Evidence for wildfires and search for meteoritic material, Science, 230, 167170, 1985.
  • Wolbach, W. S., I. Gilmour, E. Anders, Major wildfires at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 391400, 1990a.
  • Wolbach, W. S., E. Anders, M. Nazarov, Fires at the K-T boundary: Carbon at the Sumbar, Turkmenia, site, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 11331146, 1990b.
  • Young, R. E., H. Houben, O. B. Toon, Radiatively forced dispersion of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic cloud and induced temperature perturbations in the stratosphere during the first few months following the eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 369372, 1994.
  • Zahnle, K. J., Atmospheric chemistry by large impacts, Global Catastrophes in Earth HistoryV. Sharpton, P. Ward, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 271288, 1990.
  • Zahnle, K. J., Airburst origin of dark shadows on Venus, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1024310255, 1992.
  • Zahnle, K. J., Dynamics and chemistry of SL9 plumes, in The Impact of Comet Shomaker-Levy 9 With Jupiter, IAU Symp., 156, edited byK. Noll, andH. Weaver, pp.183212,CambridgeUniv. Press,New York, in press,1996.
  • Zahnle, K., M.-M. Mac Low, The collision of Jupiter and comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, Icarus, 108, 117, 1994.
  • Zahnle, K., M.-M. Mac Low, A simple model for the light curve generated by a Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16,88516,894, 1995.
  • Zahnle, K., M.-M. Mac Low, K. Lodders, B. Fegley, Sulfur chemistry in the wake of Shoemaker-Levy 9, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 15931596, 1995.