A two-dimensional analytic ray tracing technique accommodating horizontal gradients


  • R. J. Norman,

  • P. S. Cannon


A new two-dimensional analytic ray tracing method, known as segmented method for analytic ray tracing (SMART), which automatically segments the ionosphere along the ray path is described. Unlike other techniques, SMART is able to accurately ray trace through horizontal gradients which vary with altitude along and in the direction of the ray path. Computer run times are approximately 10 times faster than those of numerical ray tracing packages, and ground range errors are typically less than 2.5%.