SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Asper, V. L., Particle flux in the ocean: Oceanographic tools, Particle Flux in the OceanV. Ittekkot, et al., 7184, John Wiley, New York, 1996.
  • Bacon, M. P., R. F. Anderson, Distributions of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep sea, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 20452056, 1982.
  • Bacon, M. P., D. W. Spencer, P. G. Brewer, 210Pb/226Ra and 210Pb/210Po disequilibria in seawater and suspended particulate matter, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 32, 277296, 1976.
  • Bacon, M. P., J. K. Cochran, D. Hirschberg, T. R. Hammar, A. P. Fleer, Export flux of carbon at the equator during the EqPac time-series cruises estimated from 234Th measurements, Deep Sea Res. II, 43, 11331154, 1996.
  • Baker, E. T., H. B. Milburn, D. A. Tennant, Field assessment of sediment trap efficiency under varying flow conditions, J. Mar. Res., 46, 573592, 1988.
  • Barber, R. T., M. P. Sanderson, S. T. Lindley, F. Chai, J. Newton, C. C. Trees, D. G. Foley, F. P. Chavez, Primary productivity and its regulation in the equatorial Pacific during and following the 1991–1992 El Nino, Deep Sea Res. II, 43, 933969, 1996.
  • Bathmann, U. V., R. Scharek, C. D. Dubischar, Chlorophyll and phytoplankton species distribution in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in spring, Deep Sea Res. II, 44, 5168, 1997.
  • Bhat, S. G., S. K. Krishnaswamy, D. Lal, D. Rama, W. S. Moore, 234Th/238U ratios in the ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 5, 483491, 1969.
  • Bidigare, R. R., M. E. Ondrusek, Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. II43, 809833, 1996.
  • Binder, B. J., S. W. Chisholm, R. J. Olson, S. L. Frankel, A. Z. Worden, Dynamics of picophytoplankton, ultraphytoplankton and bacteria in the central equatorial Pacific, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. Equat. Pac. 2, 434–6, 907922, 1996.
  • Boyd, P., P. Newton, Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux, Deep Sea Res. I, 42, 619639, 1995.
  • Boyd, P., P. Newton, Measuring biogenic carbon flux in the ocean, Science, 275, 554, 1997.
  • Bruland, K. W., K. H. Coale, Surface water 234Th/238U disequilibria: Spatial and temporal variations of scavenging rates within the Pacific Ocean, Dynamic Processes in the Chemistry of the Upper OceanJ. D. Burton, et al., 159172, Plenum, New York, 1986.
  • Buesseler, K. O., Do upper-ocean sediment traps provide an accurate record of particle flux?, Nature, 353, 420423, 1991.
  • Buesseler, K. O., M. P. Bacon, J. K. Cochran, H. D. Livingston, Carbon and nitrogen export during the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment estimated from 234Th:238U disequilibria, Deep Sea Res. I, 39, 11151137, 1992a.
  • Buesseler, K. O., J. K. Cochran, M. P. Bacon, H. D. Livingston, S. A. Casso, D. Hirschberg, M. C. Hartman, A. P. Fleer, Determination of thorium isotopes in seawater by non-destructive and radiochemical procedures, Deep Sea Res. I, 39, 11031114, 1992b.
  • Buesseler, K. O., A. F. Michaels, D. A. Siegel, A. H. Knap, A three-dimensional time-dependent approach to calibrating sediment trap fluxes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 82, 179193, 1994.
  • Buesseler, K. O., J. A. Andrews, M. C. Hartman, R. Belastock, F. Chai, Regional estimates of the export flux of particulate organic carbon derived from thorium-234 during the JGOFS EqPac program, Deep Sea Res. II, 42, 777804, 1995.
  • Butman, C. A., W. D. Grant, K. D. Stolzenbach, Predictions of sediment trap biases in turbulent flows: A theoretical analysis based on observations from the literature, J. Mar. Res., 44, 601644, 1986.
  • Chavez, F. P., K. R. Buck, S. K. Service, J. Newton, R. T. Barber, Phytoplankton variability in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, Deep Sea Res. II, 43, 835870, 1996.
  • Chen, J. H., R. L. Edwards, G. J. Wasserburg, 238U, 234U and 232Th in seawater, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 80, 241251, 1986.
  • Coale, K. H., Labyrinth of doom: A device to minimize the “swimmer” component in sediment trap collections, Limnol. Oceanogr., 356, 13761381, 1990.
  • Coale, K. H., K. W. Bruland, 234Th:238U disequilibria within the California Current, Limnol. Oceanogr., 301, 2233, 1985.
  • Coale, K. H., K. W. Bruland, Oceanic stratified euphotic zone as elucidated by 234Th:238U disequilibria, Limnol. Oceanogr., 321, 189200, 1987.
  • Coale, K. H., et al., A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Nature, 383, 495501, 1996.
  • Cochran, J. K., K. O. Buesseler, M. P. Bacon, H. D. Livingston, Thorium isotopes as indicators of particle dynamics in the upper ocean: Results from the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, Deep Sea Res., 40, 15691595, 1993.
  • Cochran, J. K., C. Barnes, D. Achman, D. J. Hirschberg, Thorium-234/Uranium-238 disequilibrium as an indicator of scavenging rates and particulate organic carbon fluxes in the northeast water polynya, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 43994410, 1995.
  • Cochran, J. K., K. A. Roberts, C. Barnes, D. Achman, Radionuclides as indicators of particle and carbon dynamics on the East Greenland ShelfRadioprotection-colloques, 32 (C2), Proceedings of RADOC 96–97 “Radionuclides in the Oceans”P. Germain, et al., 129136, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cherbourg, France, 1997.
  • Codispoti, L. A., G. E. Friederich, C. M. Sakamoto, L. I. Gordon, Nutrient cycling and primary production in the marine systems of the Arctic and Antarctic, J. Mar. Sys., 2, 359384, 1991.
  • DeMaster, D., The supply and accumulation of silica in the marine environment, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 45, 17151732, 1981.
  • Downs, J. N., Export of production in oceanic systems: Information from phaeopigment, carbon and nitrogen analyses, Ph.D. thesis,Univ. of Wash.,Seattle,1989.
  • Dugdale, R. C., J. J. Goering, Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 12, 196206, 1967.
  • Eppley, R. W., New production: History, methods, problems, Productivity of the Ocean: Present and PastW. H. Berger, et al., 8597, John Wiley, New York, 1989.
  • Eppley, R. W., B. J. Peterson, Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean, Nature, 282, 670680, 1979.
  • Fasham, M. J. R., H. W. Ducklow, S. M. McKelvie, A nitrogen-based model of plankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer, J. Mar. Res., 48, 591639, 1990.
  • Feely, R. A., R. Wanninkhof, C. E. Cosca, P. P. Murphy, M. F. Lamb, M. D. Steckley, CO2 distributions in the equatorial Pacific during the 1991–1992 ENSO event, Deep Sea Res. II, 42, 365386, 1995.
  • Fowler, S. W., G. A. Knauer, Role of large particles in the transport of elements and organic compounds through the oceanic water column, Prog. Oceanogr., 16, 147194, 1986.
  • Gardner, W. D., I. D. Walsh, Distribution of macroaggregates and fine-grained particles across a continental margin and their potential role in fluxes, Deep Sea Res. I, 37, 401411, 1990.
  • Goldman, J. C., Spatial and temporal discontinuities of biological processes in pelagic surface waters, Toward a Theory on Biological-Physical Interactions in the World OceanB. Rothschild, 273296, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass., 1988.
  • Goldman, J. C., Potential role of large oceanic diatoms in new primary production, Deep Sea Res. I, 40, 159168, 1993.
  • Gustafsson, Ö., P. M. Gschwend, K. O. Buesseler, Using 234Th disequilibria to estimate the vertical removal rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the surface ocean, Mar. Chem., 57, 1123, 1997.
  • Haake, B., V. Ittekkot, T. Rixen, V. Ramaswamy, R. R. Nair, W. B. Curry, Seasonality and interannual variability of particle fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Res. I, 40, 13231344, 1993.
  • Hansell, D. A., C. A. Carlson, N. R. Bates, A. Poisson, Horizontal and vertical removal of organic carbon in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: A mass balance assessment, Deep Sea Res. II, 1998.
  • Hartman, M. C., K. O. Buesseler, Adsorbers for in-situ collection and at-sea gamma analyses of dissolved thorium-234 in seawaterWHOI Tech. Rep. 94-15, 19Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst., Woods Hole, Mass., 1994.
  • Jochem, F. J., S. Mathot, B. Queginer, Size-fractionated primary production in the open Southern Ocean in austral spring, Polar Biol.15, 381392, 1995.
  • Karl, D. M., J. R. Christian, J. E. Dore, D. V. Hebel, R. M. Letelier, L. M. Tupas, C. D. Winn, Seasonal and interannual variability in primary production and particle flux at station ALOHA, Deep Sea Res. II, 43, 539568, 1996.
  • Kaufman, A., Y.-H. Li, K. K. Turekian, The removal rates of 234Th and 228Th from waters of the New York Bight, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 54, 385392, 1981.
  • Knauer, G., V. Asper, Sediment trap technology and sampling: Report of the U.S. GOFS working group on sediment trap technology and samplingU.S. GOFS Plann. Rep. 10, 94U.S. GOFS Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole oceanographic Institution, woods Hole, MA, 1989.
  • Landry, M. R., et al., Iron and grazing constraints on primary production in the central equatorial Pacific: An EqPac synthesis, Limnol. Oceanogr., 423, 405418, 1997.
  • Lochte, K., H. W. Ducklow, M. J. R. Fasham, C. Stienen, Plankton succession and carbon cycling at 47°N 20°W during the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, Deep Sea Res. II, 40, 91114, 1993.
  • Martin, J. H., Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: The iron hypothesis, Paleoceanography, 51, 113, 1990.
  • Martin, J. H., S. E. Fitzwater, Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic, Nature, 331, 341343, 1988.
  • Martin, J. H., G. A. Knauer, D. M. Karl, W. W. Broenkow, VERTEX: Carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific, Deep Sea Res., 34, 267285, 1987.
  • Martin, J. H., S. E. Fitzwater, R. M. Gordon, S. N. Hunter, S. J. Tanner, Iron, primary production and carbon-nitrogen flux studies during the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, Deep Sea Res. II, 40, 115134, 1993.
  • Martin, J. H., et al., The iron hypothesis: Ecosystem tests in equatorial Pacific waters, Nature, 371, 123129, 1994.
  • McCarthy, J. J., C. Garside, J. L. Nevins, R. T. Barber, New production along 140°W in the equatorial Pacific during and following the 1992 El Niño event, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. Equat. Pac. 2, 434–6, 10651092, 1996.
  • McGillicuddy, D. J., J. J. McCarthy, A. R. Robinson, Coupled physical and biological modeling of the spring bloom in the North Atlantic, I, Model formulation and one dimensional bloom processes, Deep Sea Res., 42, 13131357, 1995a.
  • McGillicuddy, D. J., A. R. Robinson, J. J. McCarthy, Coupled physical and biological modeling of the spring bloom in the North Atlantic, II, Three dimensional bloom and post-bloom processes, Deep Sea Res., 42, 13591398, 1995b.
  • Michaels, A. F., A. H. Knap, Overview of the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic tim-series study and the Hydrostation S program, Top. Stud. Oceanogr, HOT/BATS, 43(2–3), 157198, 1996.
  • Michaels, A. F., M. W. Silver, Primary production, sinking fluxes and the microbial food web, Deep Sea Res., 35, 473490, 1988.
  • Michaels, A. F., N. R. Bates, K. O. Buesseler, C. A. Carlson, A. H. Knap, Carbon-cycle imbalances in the Sargasso Sea, Nature, 372, 537540, 1994.
  • Moran, S. B., K. O. Buesseler, Size-fractionated 234Th in continental shelf waters off New England: Implications for the role of colloids in oceanic trace metal scavenging, J. Mar. Res., 51, 893922, 1993.
  • Murnane, R. J., J. K. Cochran, K. O. Buesseler, M. P. Bacon, Least-squares estimates of thorium, particle, and nutrient cycling rate constants from the JGOFS North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, Deep Sea Res., 43, 239258, 1996.
  • Murray, J. W., J. N. Downs, S. Strom, C.-L. Wei, H. W. Jannasch, Nutrient assimilation, export production and 234Th scavenging in the eastern equatorial Pacific, Deep Sea Res., 36, 14711489, 1989.
  • Murray, J. W., R. T. Barber, M. R. Roman, M. P. Bacon, R. A. Feely, Physical and biological controls on carbon cycling in the equatorial Pacific, Science, 266, 5865, 1994.
  • Murray, J. W., J. Young, J. Newton, J. Dunne, T. Chapin, B. Paul, Export flux of particulate organic carbon from the central equatorial Pacific determined using a combined drifting trap-234Th approach, Deep Sea Res. II, 43, 10951132, 1996.
  • Peinert, R., B. vonBodungen, V. S. Smetacek, Food web structure and loss rate, Productivity of the Ocean: Present and PastW. H. Berger, et al., 3548, John Wiley, New York, 1989.
  • Rivkin, R. B., et al., Vertical flux of biogenic carbon in the ocean: Is there food web control?, Science, 272, 11631166, 1996.
  • Rivkin, R. B., et al., Response to “Measuring biogenic carbon flux in the ocean” by P. Boyd and P. Newton, Science, 275, 554555, 1997.
  • Rutgers van der Loeff, M. M., J. Friedrich, U. V. Bathmann, Carbon export during the spring bloom at the southern polar front, determined with the natural tracer 234Th, Deep Sea Res. II, 44, 457478, 1997.
  • Sancetta, C., T. Villareal, P. Falkowski, Massive fluxes of rhizosolenid diatoms: A common occurrence, Limnol. Oceanogr., 36, 14521457, 1991.
  • Santschi, P. H., Y. Li, J. Bell, Natural radionuclides in the water of Narragansett Bay, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 45, 201213, 1979.
  • Sarmiento, J. L., Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2: The major uncertainties, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 54, 309313, 1991.
  • Shimmield, G. B., G. R. Ritchie, The impact of marginal ice zone processes on the distribution of 210Pb, 210Po and 234Th and implications for new production in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, Deep Sea Res. II, 42, 13131335, 1995.
  • Smetacek, V. S., The role of sinking diatom life-history cycles: Ecological, evolutionary and geological significance, Mar. Biol., 84, 239251, 1985.
  • Tanaka, N., Y. Takeda, S. Tsunogai, Biological effect on removal of Th-234, Po-210 and Pb-210 from surface water in Funka Bay, Japan, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 17831790, 1983.
  • Tsunogai, S., K. Taguchi, K. Harada, Seasonal variation in the difference between observed and calculated particulate fluxes of Th-234 in Funka Bay, Japan, J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn., 42, 9198, 1986.
  • Verity, P. G., D. K. Stoecker, M. E. Sieracki, J. R. Nelson, Grazing, growth and mortality of microzooplankton during the 1989 North Atlantic spring bloom at 47°N, 18°W, Deep Sea Res. I, 40, 17931814, 1993.
  • Verity, P. G., D. K. Stoecker, M. E. Sieracki, J. R. Nelson, Microzooplankton grazing of primary production at 140°W in the equatorial Pacific, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. Equat. Pac. 2, 434–6, 12271256, 1996.
  • Walsh, I. D., W. D. Gardner, A comparison of aggregate profiles with sediment trap fluxes, Deep Sea Res. I, 39, 18171834, 1992.
  • Wei, C.-L., J. W. Murray, Temporal variations of 234Th activity in the water column of Dabob Bay: Particle scavenging, Limnol. Oceanogr., 37, 296314, 1992.
  • Young, D. K., J. C. Kindle, Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2261922632, 1994.