A two-layer model of the ionosphere using Global Positioning System data



We present a new approach to model the Ionosphere based on GPS data. Previous authors have used models with an unique shell. In this case we have included a second shell to account for the distribution of the electrons in the outer part of the Ionosphere. We have analyzed the ionospheric electron content of a region above 30 degrees in declination in different conditions of ionospheric activity using the Kalman filter. The data used has been obtained from the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) network. Simultaneously we have studied the receiver and transmitter differential biases showing the effects of neglecting the outer part of the Ionosphere in the model. It appears a systematic variations for the receivers—depending on its latitude—not for the satellites.