Measuring ionospheric densities, temperatures, and drift velocities simultaneously at Jicamarca



Incoherent scatter autocorrelation function measurements are difficult to make in the F region at Jicamarca because of very strong clutter contamination by coherent echoes from unstable plasma waves in the E-region electrojet that are aligned with the magnetic field. We have developed a more effective way to deal with this clutter that improves the quality of the temperature (and composition when light ions are present) data. Other coherent echoes (much weaker than electrojet echoes but stronger than incoherent scatter) are also received through the antenna sidelobes from field-aligned irregularities in the 140–170 km altitude range during daytime. These latter echoes have a very narrow bandwidth, and so it is easy to measure their Doppler shift and obtain the vertical plasma drift velocity, which is proportional to the zonal electric field.