SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Barnett, T. P., Long-term trends in surface temperature over the oceans, Mon. Weather Rev., 112, 303312, 1984.
  • Blumenthal, M. B., Predictability of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, J. Clim., 4, 766784, 1991.
  • Blumenthal, M. B., M. A. Cane, Accounting for parameter uncertainties in model verification: An illustration with tropical sea surface temperature, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 815830, 1989.
  • Bottomley, M., C. K. Folland, J. Hsiung, R. E. Newell, D. E. Parker, Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas, Her Majesty's Stn. Off., Norwich, England, 1990.
  • Cane, M. A., A. Kaplan, R. N. Miller, B. Tang, E. C. Hackert, A. J. Busalacchi, Mapping tropical Pacific sea level: Data assimilation via a reduced state space Kalman filter, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2259922617, 1996.
  • Cheng, X., G. Nitsche, J. M. Wallace, Robustness of low-frequency circulation patterns derived from EOF and rotated EOF analyses, J. Clim., 8, 17091713, 1995.
  • Cohn, S. E., R. Todling, Approximate data assimilation schemes for stable and unstable dynamics, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 74, 6375, 1996.
  • Dee, D. P., On-line estimation of error covariance parameters for atmospheric data assimilation, Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 11281145, 1995.
  • Folland, C. K., D. E. Parker, Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 121, 319367, 1995.
  • Folland, C. K., D. E. Parker, F. E. Kates, Worldwide marine temperature fluctuations 1865–1981, Nature, 310, 670673, 1984.
  • Fukumori, I., Assimilation of TOPEX sea level measurements with a reduced-gravity, shallow water model of the tropical Pacific ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2502725040, 1995.
  • Fukumori, I., P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, An approximate Kalman filter for ocean data assimilation: An example with an idealized Gulf Stream model, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 67776793, 1995.
  • Gandin, L. S., Objective Analysis of Meteorological Fields (in Russian),Gidrometeorologicheskoye Izdatel'stvo,Leningrad, Russia,1963. (English translation, 242 pp.,Isr. Program for Sci. Transl.,Jerusalem,1965.).
  • , Applied Optimal EstimationA. Gelb, 374, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1974.
  • Ghil, M., S. E. Cohn, J. Tavantzis, K. Bube, E. Isaakson, Applications of estimation theory to numerical weather prediction, Dynamic Meteorology: Data Assimilation MethodsL. Bengtsson, M. Ghil, E. Kallen, 139224, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981.
  • Householder, A. S., The Theory of Matrices in Numerical Analysis, 257, Dover, Mineola, N. Y., 1975.
  • Jones, P. D., T. M. L. Wigley, G. Farmer, Marine and land temperature data sets: A comparison and a look at recent trends, Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and ObservationsM. E. Schlezinger, 153172, Elsevier, New York, 1991.
  • Kalman, R. E., A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems, J. Basic Eng., 82, 3545, 1960.
  • Laning Jr., J. H., R. H. Battin, Random Processes in Automatic Control, 269275, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956.
  • Legler, D. M., Errors in five-day mean surface wind and temperature conditions due to inadequate sampling, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 705712, 1991.
  • Legler, D. M., I. M. Navon, J. J. O'Brien, Objective analysis of pseudostress over the Indian Ocean using a direct-minimization approach, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 709720, 1989.
  • Lorenc, A., Analysis methods for numerical weather prediction, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 112, 11771194, 1986.
  • Mardia, K. V., J. T. Kent, J. M. Bibby, Multivariate Analysis, 521, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1979.
  • Miller, R. N., Tropical data assimilation experiments with simulated data: The impact of the tropical ocean and global atmosphere thermal array for the ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1146111482, 1990.
  • North, G. R., T. L. Bell, R. F. Calahan, F. J. Moeng, Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions, Mon. Weather Rev., 110, 699706, 1982.
  • Parker, D. E., P. D. Jones, C. K. Folland, A. Bevan, Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1437314399, 1994.
  • Preisendorfer, R. W., Principal Component Analysis in Meteorology and Oceanography, 425, Elsevier, New York, 1988.
  • Rao, C. R., Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications, 625, John Wiley, New York, 1973.
  • Rauch, H. E., F. Tung, C. T. Striebel, Maximum likelihood estimates of linear dynamic systems, AIAA J., 3, 14451450, 1965.
  • Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, Improved global sea surface temperature analysis using optimum interpolation, J. Clim., 7, 929948, 1994.
  • Sasaki, Y., Some basic formalism in numerical variational analysis, Mon. Weather Rev., 98, 875883, 1970.
  • Shapiro, R., The use of linear filtering as a parameterization of atmospheric diffusion, J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 523531, 1971.
  • Sheri, S. S. P., G. R. North, K.-Y. Kim, Spectral approach to optimal estimation of the global temperature, J. Clim., 7, 19992002, 1994.
  • Shriver, J. F., J. J. O'Brien, Low-frequency variability of the equatorial Pacific ocean using a new pseudostress dataset: 1930–1989, J. Clim., 8, 27622786, 1995.
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, C. F. Ropelewski, Optimal averaging of seasonal sea surface temperatures and associated confidence intervals (1860–1989), J. Clim., 7, 949964, 1994.
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, R. E. Livezey, D. C. Stokes, Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperatures using empirical orthogonal functions, J. Clim., 9, 14031420, 1996.
  • Sorenson, H. W., Least-squares estimation: From Gauss to Kalman, IEEE Spectrum, 7, 6368, 1970.
  • Talagrand, O., Assimilation of observations, an introduction, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 75, 191209, 1997.
  • Thacker, W. C., R. Lewandowicz, Climatic indices, principal components, and the Gauss-Markov theorem, J. Clim., 9, 19421958, 1996.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. R. Christy, J. W. Hurrell, Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures, J. Clim., 5, 14051423, 1992.
  • Wahba, G., D. R. Johnson, F. Gao, J. Gong, Adaptive tuning of numerical weather prediction models: Randomized GCV in three- and four-dimensional data assimilation, Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 33583369, 1995.
  • Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, P. M. Steurer, A comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 68, 521527, 1987.
  • Xue, Y., M. A. Cane, S. E. Zebiak, M. B. Blumenthal, On the prediction of ENSO: A study with a low-order Markov model, Tellus, Ser. A, 46, 512528, 1994.