SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson, M. C., Studies of the woodland light climate, I, The photographic computation of light condition, J. Ecol., 52, 2741, 1964.
  • Beets, P., Determination of the fascicle surface area for Pinus radiata, N. Z. J. For. Sci., 7, 397407, 1977.
  • Bonan, G. B., Importance of leaf area index and forest type when estimating photosynthesis in boreal forests, Remote Sens. Environ., 43, 303314, 1993.
  • Bonhomme, R., C. Varlet Granger, P. Chartier, The use of hemispherical photographs for determining the leaf area index of young crops, Photosynthetica, 8, 299301, 1974.
  • Brand, D. G., Estimating the surface area of spruce and pine foliage from displaced volume and length, Can. J. For. Res., 17, 13051308, 1987.
  • Chen, J. M., Optically based methods for measuring seasonal variation in leaf area index in boreal conifer stands, Agric. For. Meteorol., 80, 135163, 1996a.
  • Chen, J. M., Canopy architecture and remote sensing of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by boreal conifer forests, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 34, 13531368, 1996b.
  • Chen, J. M., T. A. Black, Defining leaf area index for non-flat leaves, Plant Cell Environ., 15, 421429, 1992a.
  • Chen, J. M., T. A. Black, Foliage area and architecture of plant canopies from sunfleck size distributions, Agric. For. Meteorol., 60, 249266, 1992b.
  • Chen, J. M., J. Cihlar, Plant canopy gap size analysis theory for improving optical measurements of leaf area index, Appl. Opt., 34, 62116222, 1995a.
  • Chen, J. M., J. Cihlar, Quantifying the effect of canopy architecture on optical measurements of leaf area index using two gap size analysis methods, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 33, 777787, 1995b.
  • Chen, J. M., J. Cihlar, Retrieving leaf area index of boreal conifer forests using Landsat TM images, Remote Sens. Environ., 55, 153162, 1996.
  • Chen, J. M., T. A. Black, R. S. Adams, Evaluation of hemispherical photography for determining plant area index and geometry of a forest stand, Agric. For. Meteorol., 56, 129143, 1991.
  • Chen, J. M., P. D. Blanken, T. A. Black, M. Guilbeault, S. Chen, Radiation regime and canopy architecture in a boreal aspen forest, Agric. For. Meteorol., 86, 107125, 1997.
  • Clark, D. B., D. A. Clark, P. M. Rich, S. B. Weiss, S. F. Oberbauer, Landscape-scale evaluation of understory light and canopy structure: Methods and application in a neotropical lowland rain forest, Can. J. For. Res., 26, 747757, 1996.
  • Evans, G. C., D. E. Coombe, Hemispherical and woodland canopy photography and the light climate, J. Ecol., 47, 103113, 1959.
  • Fassnacht, K., S. T. Gower, J. M. Norman, R. E. McMurtrie, A comparison of optical and direct methods for estimating foliage surface area index in forests, Agric. For. Meteorol., 71, 183207, 1994.
  • Galo, A. T., P. M. Rich, J. J. Ewel, Effects of forest edges on the solar radiation regime in a series of reconstructed tropical ecosystems, Am. Soc. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Tech. Pap, 98108, 1992.
  • Gower, S. T., J. M. Norman, Rapid estimation of leaf area index in forests using the LI COR LAI 2000, Ecology, 72, 18961900, 1990.
  • Gower, S. T., J. G. Vogel, T. K. Stow, J. M. Norman, S. J. Steele, andC. J. Kucharik, Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba Canada,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D24), 1997.
  • Grier, C. C., K. M. Lee, R. M. Archibald, Effects of urea fertilization on allometric relations in young Douglas fir trees, Can. J. For. Res., 15, 900904, 1984.
  • Johnson, J. D., A rapid technique for estimating total surface area of pine needles, For. Sci., 30, 913921, 1984.
  • Kucharik, C. J., J. M. Norman, L. M. Murdock, andS. T. Gower, Characterizing canopy nonrandomness with a multiband vegetation imager (MVI),J. Geophys. Res., 102(D24), 1997.
  • Lang, A. R. G., Application of some of Cauchy's theorems to estimation of surface areas of leaves, needles and branches of plants, and light transmittance, Agric. For. Meteorol., 55, 191212, 1991.
  • Lang, A. R. G., Y. Xiang, Estimation of leaf area index from transmission of direct sunlight in discontinuous canopies, Agric. For. Meteorol., 35, 229243, 1986.
  • Lerdau, M. T., N. M. Holbrook, H. A. Mooney, P. M. Rich, J. L. Whitbeck, Seasonal patterns of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light availability and size, Oecologia, 92, 166171, 1992.
  • Leverenz, J. W., T. M. Hinckley, Shoot structure, leaf area index and productivity of evergreen conifer stands, Tree Physiol., 6, 135149, 1990.
  • Lin, T., P. M. Rich, D. A. Heisler, F. J. Barnes, Influences of canopy geometry on near-ground solar radiation and water balances of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands, Am. Soc. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Tech. Pap., 285294, 1992.
  • Miller, J. B., A formula for average foliage density, Aust. J. Bot., 15, 141144, 1967.
  • Miller, E. E., J. M. Norman, A sunfleck theory for plant canopies, I, Lengths of sunlit segments along a transect, Agron. J., 63, 735738, 1971.
  • Mitchell, P. L., T. C. Whitmore, Use of hemispherical photographs in forest ecology: Calculation of absolute amount of radiation beneath the canopy, Oxford For. Inst., Oxford, England, 1993.
  • Neumann, H. H., G. den Hartog, R. H. Shaw, Leaf area measurements based on hemispheric photographs and leaf-litter collection in a deciduous forest during autumn leaf-fall, Agric. For. Meteorol., 45, 325345, 1989.
  • Nilson, T., A theoretical analysis of the frequency of gaps in plant stands, Agric. Meteorol., 8, 2538, 1971.
  • Norman, J. M., Crop canopy photosynthesis and conductance from leaf measurements, workshop prepared forLI-COR, Inc.,Lincoln, Nebr.,1988. (FromJ. M. Welles, Some indirect methods of estimating canopy structure, in Instrumentation for Studying Vegetation Canopies for Remote Sensing in Optical and Thermal Infrared Region, edited byN. S. Goel, andJ. M. Norman, Remote Sens. Rev.,5(1),3143,1988.).
  • Norman, J. M., G. S. Campbell, Canopy structure, Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and InstrumentationR. W. Pearcy, et al., 301326, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1989.
  • Norman, J. M., P. G. Jarvis, Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), III, Measurement of canopy structure and interception of radiation, J. Appl. Ecol., 11, 375398, 1975.
  • Oker-Blom, P., Photosynthetic radiation regime and canopy structure in modeled forest stands, Acta For. Fenn., 197, 144, 1986.
  • Pearcy, R. W., Radiation and light measurements, Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and InstrumentationR. W. Pearcy, et al., 95116, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1989.
  • Rich, P. M., A manual for analysis of hemispherical canopy photography, Los Alamos Natl. Lab. RepLA-11733-M, 1989.
  • Rich, P. M., Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photographs, Instrumentation for studying vegetation canopies for remote sensing in optical and thermal infrared regions, Remote Sens. Rev., 5, 1329, 1990.
  • Rich, P. M., D. A. Clark, D. B. Clark, S. F. Oberbauer, Long-term study of solar radiation regimes in a tropical wet forest using quantum sensors and hemispherical photography, Agric. For. Meteorol., 65, 107127, 1993.
  • Rich, P. M., J. Chen, S. J. Sulatycki, R. Vashisht, W. S. Wachspress, Calculation of leaf area index and other canopy indices from gap fraction: A manual for the LAICALC software, Open File RepKans. Appl. Remote Sens. Progr., Lawrence, 1995.
  • Ross, J., The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands, Dr. W. Junk, Norwell, Mass., 1981.
  • Ross, J., S. Kellomaki, P. Oker-Blom, V. Ross, L. Vilikainen, Architecture of Scots pine crown: Phytometrical characteristics of needles and shoots, Silva Fennica, 19, 91105, 1986.
  • Running, S. W., J. C. Coughlan, A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications, I, Hydrological balance, canopy gas exchange, and primary production processes, Ecol. Modell., 42, 125154, 1988.
  • Sellers, P. J., Y. Mintz, Y. C. Sud, A. Dalcher, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 505531, 1986.
  • Stenberg, P., S. Linder, H. Smolander, J. Flower-Ellis, Performance of the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer in estimating leaf area index of some Scots pine stands, Tree Physiol., 14, 981995, 1994.
  • Vogel, J., Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of boreal jack pine stands with different understory vegetation, M.Sc. thesis,Univ. of Wisc.,Madison,1997.
  • Warren-Wilson, J., Stand structure and light penetration, I, Analysis by point quadrats, J. Appl. Ecol., 2, 383390, 1965.
  • Welles, J. M., Some indirect methods of estimating canopy structure, Remote Sens. Rev., 5, 3143, 1990.