SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Atjay, G. L., P. Ketner, P. Duvigneaud, Terrestrial primary production and phytomass, The Global Carbon CycleB. E. Bolin, T. Degens, S. Kempe, P. Ketner, scope, 13, 129181, John Wiley, New York, 1977.
  • Chen, J., P. W. Rich, S. T. Gower, J. M. Norman, andS. Plummer, Leaf area index of boreal forests: Theory, techniques, and measurements,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D24), 1997.
  • Cias, P., P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, R. J. Francey, A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2, Science, 269, 10981102, 1995.
  • Dang, Q.-L., H. A. Margolis, M. Sy, M. R. Coyea, G. J. Collatz, andC. L. Walthall, Profiles of photosynthetically active radiation, nitrogen, and photosynthetic capacity in the boreal forest: Implications for scaling from leaf to canopy,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D24), 1997.
  • Daniel, T. W., J. A. Helms, F. S. Baker, Principles of Silviculture2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979.
  • Fassnacht, K. S., S. T. Gower, Interrelationships among the edaphic and stand characteristics, leaf area index, and aboveground net primary production of upland forest ecosystems in north central Wisconsin, Can. J. For. Res., 27, 10581067, 1997.
  • Fassnacht, K. S., S. T. Gower, J. M. Norman, R. E. McMurtrie, A comparison of optical and direct methods for estimating foliage surface area index in forests, Agric. For. Meteorol., 71, 183207, 1994.
  • Finer, L., Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire, Acta For. Fenn., 208, 654, 1989.
  • Finer, L., Effect of fertilization on dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling in Scots pine on an ombrotrophic bog, Acta For. Fenn., 223, 142, 1991.
  • Flanagan, P. W., K. Van Cleve, Nutrient cycling in relation to decomposition and organic matter quality in taiga ecosystems, Can. J. For. Res., 13, 795817, 1983.
  • Foster, N. W., I. Morrison, Distribution and cycling of nutrients in a natural Pinus banksiana ecosystem, Ecology, 57, 11120, 1976.
  • Frolking, S., et al., Modelling temporal variability in the carbon balance of a spruce/moss boreal forest, Global Change Biol., 2, 343366, 1996.
  • Gholz, H. L., Environmental limits on aboveground net primary production, leaf area, and biomass in vegetation zones of the Pacific Northwest, Ecology, 63, 469481, 1982.
  • Gower, S. T., K. A. Vogt, C. C. Grier, Carbon dynamics of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir: Influence of water and nutrient availability, Ecol. Monogr., 62, 4365, 1992.
  • Gower, S. T., B. E. Haynes, K. S. Fassnacht, S. W. Running, E. R. Hunt Jr., Influence of fertilization on the allometric relations for two pines in contrasting environments, Can. J. For. Res., 23, 17041711, 1993.
  • Gower, S. T., J. G. Isebrands, D. W. Sheriff, Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers, Resource Physiology of ConifersW. Smith, T. M. Hinckley, 217254, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995.
  • Gower, S. T., R. E. McMurtrie, D. Murty, Aboveground net primary production decline with stand age: Potential causes, Trends Ecol. Evol., 11, 378382, 1996.
  • Grigal, D. F., Sphagnum production in forested bogs of northern Minnesota, Can. J. Bot., 63, 12041207, 1985.
  • Grigal, D. F., C. G. Buttleman, L. K. Kernik, Biomass and productivity of the woody strata of forested bogs in northern Minnesota, Can. J. Bot., 63, 24162424, 1985.
  • Hunt Jr., E. R., S. W. Running, Simulated dry matter yields for aspen and spruce stands in the North American boreal forests, Can. J. Remote Sens., 18, 126133, 1992.
  • Husch, B., C. I. Miller, T. W. Beers, Forest Mensuration3rd ed., 402, John Wiley, New York, 1982.
  • Keeling, C. D., J. F. S. Chin, T. P. Whorf, Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements, Nature, 382, 146149, 1996.
  • Kloeppel, B. D., Aboveground net primary production and resource use of larch and sympatric evergreen conifers in contrasting climates, Ph.D. dissertation,Univ. of Wisconsin,Madison,1997.
  • Kucharik, C. J., J. M. Norman, L. M. Murdock, andS. T. Gower, Characterizing canopy nonrandomness with a multiband vegetation imager (MVI),J. Geophys. Res., 102(D24), 1997.
  • Landsberg, J. J., S. T. Gower, Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997.
  • Landsberg, J. J., S. D. Prince, P. G. Jarvis, R. E. McMurtrie, R. Luxmoore, B. E. Medlyn, Energy conversion and use in forests: The analysis of forest production in terms of radiation utilization efficiency (ϵ), The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modeling of Forest Productivity at Scales From Stands to GlobeH. L. Gholz, K. Nakane, H. Shirada, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass., 1997.
  • McMurtrie, R. E., H. L. Gholz, S. Linder, S. T. Gower, Climatic factors controlling the productivity of pine stands: A model-based analysis, Ecol. Bull., 43, 173188, 1994.
  • Oechel, W. C., K. Van Cleve, The role of bryophytes in nutrient cycling in the taiga, Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan TaigaK. Van Cleve, F. S. Chapin III, P. W. Flanagan, L. A. Viereck, C. T. Dyrness, 121137, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986.
  • Perala, D. A., D. H. Alban, Biomass, nutrient distribution, and litterfall in Populus, Pinus and Picea stands on two different soils in Minnesota, Plant Soil, 64, 177192, 1982.
  • Quay, P. D., B. Tilbrook, C. S. Wong, Oceanic uptake of fossil fuel CO2: Carbon-13 evidence, Science, 256, 7479, 1992.
  • Reader, R. J., J. M. Stewart, The relationship between net primary production and accumulation for a peatland in southeastern Manitoba, Ecology, 53, 10241037, 1972.
  • Ruark, G. A., J. G. Bockheim, Biomass, net primary production, and nutrient distribution for an age sequence of Populus tremuloides ecosystems, Can. J. For. Res., 18, 435443, 1988.
  • Ruess, R. W., K. Van Cleve, J. Yarie, L. A. Viereck, Contributions of fine root production and turnover to the carbon and nitrogen cycling in taiga forests of the Alaskan interior, Can. J. For. Res., 26, 13261336, 1996.
  • Runyon, J., R. H. Waring, S. N. Goward, J. M. Welles, Environmental limit on net primary production and light use efficiency across the Oregon transect, Ecol. Applica., 4, 226237, 1994.
  • Ryan, M. G., D. Binkley, J. H. Fownes, Age-related decline in forest productivity: Pattern and process, Adv. Ecol. Res., 27, 213262, 1996.
  • Schlesinger, W. H., Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, Academic Press, 1991.
  • Sellers, P., et al., The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere study (BOREAS): An overview and early results from the 1994 field year, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 76, 15491577, 1995.
  • Siegenthaler, U., J. L. Sarmiento, Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the ocean, Nature, 365, 119125, 1993.
  • Steele, S. J., S. T. Gower, J. G. Vogel, J. M. Norman, Root biomass, net primary production and turnover of aspen, jack pine and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada, Tree Physiol., 17, 577587, 1997.
  • Tans, P. P., I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget, Science, 247, 14311438, 1990.
  • Van Cleve, K., L. K. Oliver, P. Schlentner, L. A. Viereck, C. T. Dyrness, Productivity and nutrient cycling in taiga forest ecosystems, Can. J. For. Res., 13, 747766, 1983.
  • Vogel, J. G., Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of boreal jack pine stands with different understory vegetation, M.S. thesis,Univ. of Wisconsin,Madison,1997.
  • Wang, Y. P., P. J. Polglase, Carbon balance in the tundra, boreal forest and humid tropical forest during climate change: Scaling up from leaf physiology and soil carbon dynamics, Plant Cell Environ., 18, 12261244, 1995.
  • Waring, R. H., W. H. Schlesinger, Forest Ecosystems: Concepts and Management, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985.
  • Whittaker, R. H., G. E. Likens, Carbon in the biota, Carbon and the BiosphereG. M. Woodwell, E. V. Pecan, Conf. 720510, 281302Natl. Tech. Inf. Serv., Springfield, Va., 1973.
  • Zar, J. H., Biostatistical Analysis, Prentice Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, N.J., 1983.