Studying the ionosphere with the Global Positioning System
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 32, Issue 4, pages 1695–1703, July-August 1997
How to Cite
1997), Studying the ionosphere with the Global Positioning System, Radio Sci., 32(4), 1695–1703, doi:10.1029/97RS00451., and (
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 FEB 1997
- Manuscript Received: 1 OCT 1996
Opportunities to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for ionospheric total electron content (TEC) research are reviewed. The era of TEC measurements using very high frequency geosynchronous beacons is essentially over, and the new GPS TECs need to be treated in special ways if they are to augment the existing database of total electron content. Data taken at Boulder, Colorado, show that with appropriate smoothing, GPS TECs can be used to extend the existing database. The time delay data from the International GPS Geodynamics Service over central Europe are used to map the total electron content and reveal regional structures. Global electron-density profiles can now be measured using the GPS/MET (meteorology) system. The measurement of precipitable water vapor in the troposphere to an accuracy of 10% requires that 99.9% of the ionospheric delay be removed.