Azimuth spread of two-hop ionospheric modes


  • W. M. Sherrill,

  • Bradley C. Brown


We use direction finding ionogram data to analyze the azimuth spread of two-hop F region modes in which ground scatter occurs (1) in the Gulf of Mexico and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and (2) in rough terrain in the Painted Desert region of Arizona. Ocean surface/coastal ground scatter are observed to be quasi-specular within the resolution of these measurements. Rough terrain ground scatter imposes a nominal 1.5° azimuth spread in addition to that introduced by the two traverses of the ionospheric F region.