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Monsoons over the Arabian Sea—the oceanic basin that separates the Arabian peninsula from the Indian subcontinent—follow seasonal cycles, reversing directions twice a year, in summer and winter. Rather than spreading across the expanse of the sea, the southwest (summer) monsoon is often concentrated into a jet over the central Arabian Sea. Evidence suggests that variations in wind stress force substantial upwelling in the ocean to the west of the jet, and weaker upwelling or even downwelling to the east. This upwelling provides nutrients to the euphotic zone and enhances biological productivity.