I welcome the substantive comments by Alley et al. They are well taken, but they miss my real point—as did the earlier comment by Dickinson “1997”. Briefly stated: Will a higher level of CO2—or more importantly, a warmer climate—produce a less stable climate or lead to the opposite result? As far as I can tell, this is very much an open question. Yet this crucial issue determines the goal of the Global Climate Treaty and its attempted implementation by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.