• Aagaard, K.E. C. Carmack, The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1448714498, 1989
  • Anderson, G. C.J. H. SwiftArctic Internal Wave Experiment (AIWEX) Hydrographic Data, SIO Reference 90-10, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, 1990
  • Anderson, L. G.D. Dryssen, Chemical constituents of the Arctic Ocean in the Svalbard area, Oceanol. Acta, 4, 305311, 1981
  • Anderson, L. G.G. BjorkO. HolbyE. P. JonesG. KattnerK. P. KoltermannB. LiljebladR. LindegrenB. RudelsJ. H. Swift, Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 Expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 32733283, 1994
  • Bauch, D.P. SchlosserR. G. Fairbanks, Freshwater balance and the sources of deep and bottom waters in the Arctic Ocean inferred from the distribution of H218O, Prog. Oceanog., 35, 5380, 1995
  • Codispoti, L. A.G. E. FriederichC. M. SakamotoL. I. Gordon, Nutrient cycling and primary production in the marine systems of the Arctic and Antarctic, J. Mar. Syst., 2, 359384, 1991
  • Cooper, L. W.T. E. WhitledgeJ. M. GrebmeierT. Weingartner, The nutrient, salinity, and stable oxygen isotope composition of Bering and Chukchi Seas waters in and near the Bering Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1256312573, 1997
  • Cota, G. F.L. R. PomeroyW. G. HarrisonE. P. JonesF. PetersW. M. Sheldon Jr.T. R. Weingartner, Nutrients, primary production and microbial heterotrophy in the southeastern Chukchi Sea: Arctic summer nutrient limitation and heterotrophy, Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser., 135, 247258, 1996
  • Gordeev, V. V.J. M. MartinI. S. SidorovM. V. Sidorova, A reassessment of the Eurasian River input of water, sediment, major elements, and nutrients to the Arctic Ocean, Amer. J. Science, 296, 664691, 1996
  • Jones, E. P.L. G. Anderson, On the origin of the chemical properties of the Arctic Ocean halocline, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1075910767, 1986
  • Jones, E. P.L. G. Anderson, On the origin of the properties of the Arctic Ocean halocline north of Ellesmere Island: results from the Canadian Ice Island, Cont. Shelf. Res., 10, 485498, 1990
  • Levitus, SM. E. ConkrightJ. L. ReidR. G. NaijarA. Mantyla, Distribution of nitrate, phosphate and silicate in the world oceans, Prog. Oceanogr., 31, 245273, 1993
  • McLaughlin, F.E. C. CarmackR. W. MacdonaldJ. K. B. Bishop, Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11831197, 1996
  • Meybeck, M., Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers, Amer. J. Science, 282, 401450, 1982
  • NODC World Ocean Atlas 1994 data set,
  • Pfirman, S. L.R. ColonyD. NürnbergH. EickenI. Rigor, Reconstruction the origin and trajectory of drifting Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1257512586, 1997
  • Rudels, B.E. P. JonesL. G. AndersonG. Kattner, On the origin and circulation of the Atlantic layer and intermediate depth waters in the Arctic Ocean, The Polar Oceans and Their Role in shaping the Global Environment, Geophysical Monograph Series, 85, O. M. JohannessenR. D. MuenchJ. E. Overland3346, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1994
  • Rudels, B.E. P. JonesL. G. Anderson, Formation and evolution of the surface mixed layer and halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 88078821, 1996
  • Salmon, D. K.C. P. McRoy, Nutrient-based tracers in the western Arctic: A New lower halocline water, The Polar Oceans and Their Role in shaping the Global Environment, Geophysical Monograph Series, 85, O. M. JohannessenR. D. MuenchJ. E. Overland4761, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1994
  • Schauer, U.R. D. MuenchB. RudelsL. Timokhov, Impact of eastern Arctic shelf waters on the Nansen Basin intermediate layers, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 33713382, 1997
  • Swift, J. H.E. P. JonesK. AagaardE. C. CarmackM. HingstonR. W. MacdonaldF. A. McLaughlinR. G. Perkin, Waters of the Makarov and Canada basins, Deep-Sea Res., 1997
  • Wilson, C.D. W. R. Wallace, Using the nutrient ratio NO/PO as a tracer of continental shelf water in the central Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 2219322203, 1990