A Monte Carlo model is developed to calculate the microwave emissivity of the sea surface based on the Kirchhoff approximation combined with modified Fresnel coefficients. The modified Fresnel coefficient depends on the incident angle of the electromagnetic wave and the height variance of small-scale roughness, which is an approximation to account partly for the scattering effect from small ripples. The advantage of the Monte Carlo model is its inherent capability to treat multiple scattering events. Using a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution for the sea surface slope variability, the model is capable of simulating the azimuthal dependency of the microwave emission caused by the alignment of waves perpendicular to the wind direction. Good agreement between model calculations and measurements is obtained.
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