SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allen, A. G., A. H. Miguel, Biomass burning in the Amazon: Characterization of the ionic components of aerosols generated from flaming and smoldering rain forest and savannah, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 486493, 1995.
  • Andreae, M. O., Soot carbon and excess fine potassium: Long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols, Science, 220, 11481151, 1983.
  • Andreae, M. O., Global distribution of fires seen from space, Eos Trans. AGU, 7412, 129135, 1993a.
  • Andreae, M. O., The influence of tropical biomass burning on climate and the atmospheric environment, Biogeochemistry of Global Change: Radiatively Active Trace GasesR. S. Oremland, 113150, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993b.
  • Andreae, M. O., Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosols levelsin Worm Survey of Climatology, 16, Future Climates of the WorldA. Henderson-Sellers, 341392, Elsevier, New York, 1995.
  • Andreae, M. O., P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 10521056, 1997.
  • Andreae, M. O., H. Berresheim, T. W. Andreae, M. A. Kritz, T. S. Bates, J. T. Merrill, Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean, J. Atmos. Chem., 6, 149173, 1988a.
  • Andreae, M. O., et al., Biomass-burning emissions and associated haze layers over Amazonia, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 15091527, 1988b.
  • Andreae, M. O., et al., Biomass burning in the global environment: First results from the IGAC/BIBEX field campaign STARE/TRACE-A/SAFARI-92, Global Atmospheric-Biospheric ChemistryR. G. Prinn, 83101, Plenum, New York, 1994.
  • Andreae, M. O., E. Atlas, H. Cachier, W. R. Cofer III, G. W. Harris, G. Helas, R. Koppmann, J.-P. Lacaux, D. E. Ward, Trace gas and aerosol emissions from savanna fires, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 278295, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996a.
  • Andreae, M. O., J. Fishman, J. Lindesay, The Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment (STARE): Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator — Atlantic (TRACE-A) and Southern African Fire/Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI): An introduction, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2351923520, 1996b.
  • Beck, W., H. Engelhardt, Capillary electrophoresis of organic and inorganic cations with indirect UV detection, Chromatographia, 33, 313316, 1992.
  • Cachier, H., J. Ducret, M.-P. Brémond, V. Yoboué, J.-P. Lacaux, A. Gaudichet, J. Baudet, Biomass burning in a savanna region of the Ivory Coast, Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric ImplicationsJ. S. Levine, 174180, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991.
  • Cachier, H., C. Liousse, P. Buat-Menard, A. Gaudichet, Particulate content of savanna fire emissions, J. Atmos. Chem., 22, 123148, 1995.
  • Cachier, H., C. Liousse, M.-H. Pertuisot, A. Gaudichet, F. Echalar, J.-P. Lacaux, African fire particulate emission and atmospheric influence, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 428440, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.
  • Charlson, R. J., J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate, Nature, 326, 655661, 1987.
  • Charlson, R. J., S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, Science, 255, 423430, 1992.
  • Cofer III, W. R., J. S. Levine, D. I. Sebacher, E. L. Winstead, P. J. Riggan, J. A. Brass, V. G. Ambrosia, Particulate emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed chaparral fire, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 52075212, 1988.
  • Cofer III, W. R., J. S. Levine, E. L. Winstead, D. R. Cahoon, D. I. Sebacher, J. P. Pinto, B. J. Stocks, Source composition of trace gases released during African savanna fires, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23,59723,602, 1996.
  • Echalar, F., A. Gaudichet, H. Cachier, P. Artaxo, Aerosol emissions by tropical forest and savanna biomass burning: Characteristic trace elements and fluxes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 30393042, 1995.
  • Echalar, F., P. Artaxo, J. V. Martins, M. A. Yamasoe, F. Gerab, W. Maenhaut, andB. Holben, Long-term monitoring of atmospheric aerosols in the Amazon Basin: source identification and apportionment,J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 1998.
  • Ferek, R. J., J. S. Reid, P. V. Hobbs, D. Blake, andC. Liousse, Emission factors of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, trace gases, and particles from biomass burning in Brazil,J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 1998.
  • Garstang, M., P. D. Tyson, E. Browell, R. J. Swap, Large scale transport of biogenic and biomass burning products, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 389395, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.
  • Gaudichet, A., F. Echalar, B. Chatenet, J. P. Quisefit, G. Malingre, H. Cachier, P. Buat-Ménard, P. Artaxo, W. Maenhaut, Trace elements in tropical African savanna biomass burning aerosols, J. Atmos. Chem., 22, 1939, 1995.
  • Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, Radiative forcing and climate response, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 68316864, 1997.
  • Hao, W.-M., M.-H. Liu, Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8, 495503, 1994.
  • Hegg, D. A., L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, C. A. Brock, P. J. Riggan, Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1470114709, 1987.
  • , Climate Change, 1995: The Science of Climate ChangeJ. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, 572, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996.
  • John, W., S. Hering, G. Reischl, G. Sasaki, S. Goren, Characteristics of Nuclepore filters with large pore size, II, Filtration properties, Atmos. Environ., 17, 373382, 1983.
  • Kaufman, Y. J., et al.,Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 1998.
  • Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H., E. V. A. Marinho, P. L. S. Dias, E. B. Pereira, R. Calheiros, R. André, C. Volpe, Enhancements of CO and O3 from burnings in sugar cane fields, J. Atmos. Chem., 12, 87102, 1991.
  • Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., M. O. Andreae, H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer, J.-P. Lacaux, R. Shea, P. J. Crutzen, Black carbon formation by savanna fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2365123665, 1996.
  • Lacaux, J. P., J. M. Brustet, R. Delmas, J. C. Menaut, L. Abbadie, B. Bonsang, H. Cachier, J. Baudet, M. O. Andreae, G. Helas, Biomass burning in the tropical savannas of Ivory Coast: An overview of the field experiment Fire of Savannas (FOS/DECAFE '91), J. Atmos. Chem., 22, 195216, 1995.
  • Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, T. Zenker, Aerosol optical properties over southern Africa during SAFARI-92, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 441459, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996a.
  • Le Canut, P., M. O. Andreae, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, T. Zenker, Airborne studies of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa, 1. Aerosol emissions measured with a laser optical particle counter, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2361523630, 1996b.
  • Liousse, C., H. Cachier, S. G. Jennings, Optical and thermal measurements of black carbon aerosol content in different environments: Variation of the specific attenuation cross-section, sigma (s), Atmos. Environ., 27A, 12031211, 1993.
  • Liousse, C., C. Devaux, F. Dulac, H. Cachier, Aging of savanna biomass burning aerosols: Consequences on their optical properties, J. Atmos. Chem., 22, 117, 1995.
  • Liousse, C., J. E. Penner, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, C. Chuang, H. Cachier, Modeling biomass burning aerosols, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 492508, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.
  • Maenhaut, W., I. Salma, J. Cafmeyer, H. J. Annegarn, M. O. Andreae, Regional atmospheric aerosol composition and sources in the eastern Transvaal, South Africa, and impact of biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2363123650, 1996.
  • McKenzie, L. M., D. E. Ward, W.-M. Hao, Chlorine and bromine in the biomass of tropical and temperate ecosystems, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 241248, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.
  • Novakov, T., C. E. Corrigan, Cloud condensation nucleus activity of the organic component of biomass smoke particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 21412144, 1996.
  • Pereira, E. B., A. W. Setzer, F. Gerab, P. E. Artaxo, M. C. Pereira, G. Monroe, Airborne measurements of aerosols from burning biomass in Brazil related to the TRACE-A experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2398323992, 1996.
  • , International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project:A. A. P. Pszenny, R. G. Prinn, The Operational Plan, Global Change Rep. 32, 134Int. Geos.-Bios. Programme, Stockholm, 1994.
  • Reid, J. S., P. V. Hobbs, R. J. Ferek, D. R. Blake, J. V. Martins, M. Dunlop, andC. Liousse, Physical, chemical, and optical properties of regional hazes dominated by smoke in Brazil,J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 1998.
  • Schutyser, P., W. Maenhaut, R. Dams, Instrumental neutron activation analysis of dry atmospheric fall-out and rainwater, Anal. Chem. Acta, 100, 7585, 1978.
  • Shea, R. W., B. W. Shea, J. B. Kauffman, D. E. Ward, C. I. Haskins, M. C. Scholes, Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2355123568, 1996.
  • Stocks, B. J., B. W. vanWilgen, W. S. W. Trollope, D. J. McRae, J. A. Mason, F. Weirich, A. L. F. Potgieter, Fuels and fire behavior dynamics on large-scale savanna fires in Kruger National Park, South Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23,54123,550, 1996.
  • Susott, R. A., G. J. Olbu, S. P. Baker, D. E. Ward, J. B. Kauffman, R. W. Shea, Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and thermogravimetric analysis of tropical ecosystem biomass, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 249259, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.
  • Thompson, A. M., K. E. Pickering, D. P. McNamara, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. Hudson, J.-H. Kim, E. V. Browell, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, D. Nganga, Where did tropospheric ozone over southern Africa and the tropical Atlantic come from in October 1992?, Insights from TOMS, GTE TRACE-A, and SAFARI 1992, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2425124278, 1996.
  • Trollope, W. S. W., L. A. Trollope, A. L. F. Potgieter, N. Zambatis, SAFARI-92 characterization of biomass and fire behavior in the small experimental burns in the Kruger National Park, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2353123540, 1996.
  • Turn, S. Q., B. M. Jenkins, J. C. Chow, L. C. Pritchett, D. Campbell, T. Cahill, S. A. Whalen, Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning, Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 36833699, 1997.
  • Ward, D. E., A. W. Setzer, Y. J. Kaufman, R. A. Rasmussen, Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region BASE-A experiment, Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric ImplicationsJ. S. Levine, 394402, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991.
  • Ward, D. E., R. A. Susott, J. B. Kauffman, R. E. Babbitt, D. L. Cummings, B. Dias, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, R. A. Rasmussen, A. W. Setzer, Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1460114619, 1992.
  • Ward, D. E., W.-M. Hao, R. A. Susott, R. A. Babbitt, R. W. Shea, J. B. Kauffman, C. O. Justice, Effect of fuel composition on combustion efficiency and emission factors for African savanna ecosystems, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2356923576, 1996.
  • Zenker, T., A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, T. L. Kuscera, G. W. Harris, F. G. Wienhold, P. le Canut, M. O. Andreae, R. Koppmann, Regional trace gas distribution and air mass characteristics in the haze layer over southern Africa during the biomass burning season (Sep./Oct. 92): Observations and modeling from the STARE/SAFARI'92/DC-3, Biomass Burning and Global ChangeJ. S. Levine, 296308, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996.