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The rationale for the development of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar systems operating at frequencies in the HF band arose out of a perceived need for an early-warning defense network. That need changed with the end of the Cold War; however, today OTH radars play a major role in the CounterDrug Program for the interdiction of drug-smuggling aircraft. This special section of Radio Science is devoted to a review of OTH radar technology, with emphasis on contemporary developments in this field. The collection of papers presented here has evolved largely from research and development efforts directed to improving the performance of OTH radar systems deployed both in the United States and in Australia.